PSYC 320 Lesson 10

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amourey
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PSYC 320 Lesson 10
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2012-10-25 22:38:20
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PSYC 320 Lesson 10
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PSYC 320 Lesson 10
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  1. phonology
    the rules governing the structure and sequence of speech sounds
  2. semantics
    • vocabulary
    • the way underlying concepts are expressed in words and word combinations
  3. grammar
    • syntax
    • morphology
  4. pragmatics
    the rules for engaging in appropriate and effective communication
  5. B.F. Skinner
    • propsed that language is acquired
    • operant conditioning
    • parents reinforce sounds that resemble words
  6. Chomsky
    • nativist
    • language is a uniquely human accomplishment
    • etched into the structure of the brain
  7. language acquisition device
    • nativist
    • system that permits children to combine words into grammatically consistent and novel utterances and to understand the meaning of sentences they hear
    • requires sufficient vocabulary
  8. universal grammar
    • nativist
    • built in store house of rules that apply to all human languages
    • chlidren use this knowledge to decipher grammatical categories and relationships in any language to which they are exposed
  9. interactionist perspective
    interactions between inner predispositions and environmental influences on the development of language
  10. phoneme
    smallest sound units that signal a change in meaning
  11. categorical speech perception
    tendency to percieve as identical a range of sounds that belong to the same phonemic class
  12. child-directed speech
    form of communication made up of short sentences with high-pitched and exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, distinct pauses between speech segments, clear gestures, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts
  13. babbling
    • 6 months
    • infants repeat consonant-vowel combinations
    • often in long strings
  14. joint attention
    child attends to the same object or event as the caregiver
  15. protodeclarative
    baby points to, touches, or holds up an object while looking at others to make sure they notice
  16. protoimperative
    baby gets another person to do something by reaching, pointing and often making sounds at the same time
  17. comprehension
    • the language they understand
    • develops before production
  18. production
    the language they use
  19. fast-mapping
    children can connect new words with an underlying concept after only a brief encounter
  20. three types of words
    • object
    • action
    • state
  21. type of words in beginning vocabularies
    object
  22. development of "state" words
    • 2 to 2.5 years
    • modifier words
  23. underextension
    application of words too narrowly
  24. overextension
    • application of words to a broad collection of objects and events
    • inappropriate naming
  25. metaphors
    • extend languge meanings
    • begins use in preschool age
  26. phonological store
    • young children's fast mapping is supported by a special part of working memory
    • permits us to retain speech-based information
  27. mutually exclusive bias
    assumption that words refer to entirely separate categories
  28. shape bias
    previous learning of nouns based on shape heightens attention to the shape properties of additional objects
  29. syntactic bootstrapping
    • preschoolers discover many word meanings by observing how words are used in syntax, or the structure of sentences
    • a hypothesis
  30. telegraphic speech
    young children use high-content words and omit smaller, less important ones
  31. grammatical morphemes
    small markers that change the meaning of sentences
  32. overregularization
    when children apply a regular morphological rule to words that are exceptions
  33. semantic bootstrapping
    • use word meanings to figure out sentence structure
    • grouping words together based on their qualities
    • merge categories with observations of how words are used in sentences
  34. recast
    restructuring inaccurate speech into correct form
  35. expansions
    elaborating on children's speech, increasing its complexity
  36. turnabout
    the speaker not only comments on what has just been said but also adds a request to get the partner to respond again
  37. shading
    a speaker initiates a change of topic gradually by modifying the focus of discussion
  38. illocutionary intent
    what a speaker means to say, even if the form of the utterance is not perfectly consistent with it
  39. speech registers
    language adaptations to social expectations
  40. learning two languages in childhood
    • bilingual children are advanced in cognitive development
    • brain-imaging research shows denser neuronal connections in left hemisphere
    • outperform others on tests of selective attention, analytical reasoning, concept formation and cognitive flexibility
    • advanced in metalinguistic awareness
    • transfer phonological awareness from one language to the other
    • enhance reading achievement
  41. the arrangement of words into their proper sequences is
    grammar
  42. syntax and morphology are part of what component of language?
    grammar
  43. operant conditioning plays a large role in language acquisition - who's perspective?
    • behaviorist
    • Skinner
  44. a behaviorist explanation for how children acquire complex utterances, whole phraes and sentences by
    imitation
  45. what are three aspects of Chomsky's theory?
    • mental structures are central to generating and interpreting language
    • language is biologically based
    • language is uniquely human achievement
  46. universal grammar is
     a built in storehouse of rules that apply to all human languages
  47. describe Hawaiin Creole English
    • it adopts vocabulary from pidgin English and other foreign languages
    • it is similar in structure to creole languages throughout the world, suggesting common genetic program underlies all creole languages
    • its grammar resembles the linguistic structure that children first use when acquiring any language
  48. language production is controlled by what area of the brain?
    Brova's area
  49. one census concluded that children who learned ASL in adolescence or adulthood were not as fluent as those who learned in childhood. what does this suggest?
    there is a sensitive period for language development that is typically completed by puberty
  50. the fact that second languages are typically harder to acquire in adult years than in childhood suggests that
    children are apt to learn a language during the age span of brain lateralization
  51. whose perspective states that innate abilities and social contexts combine to promote language development?
    interactionist
  52. child direct speech is
    limited communication with exaggerated intonation and clear pronunciation
  53. how are phoneme and categorical speech related?
    the tendency to perceive as identical a range of sounds that belong to the same class of phonemes is called categorical speech perception
  54. during the babbling period infants apply
    the knowledge they have gained from many months of listening to their native tongues
  55. a child who points, reaches, and makes calling sounds to get another person to do something is using a
    protoimperative
  56. the easiest sound sequences in the early phase of phonological development begin with
    consonants and end with vowels
  57. language ______ develops before language _______ in children
    • comprehension
    • production
  58. in children's language development, ______ is best defined as the language they understand
    comprehension
  59. the concept of fast mapping has been used to explain
    the speed with which children acquire new vocabulary
  60. give an example of a referential style in language use by a fourteen-month-old child
    cow
  61. four year old Christy used the expression "a stomping elephant in my head" to describe a headache. this is an example of a
    metaphor
  62. syntactic bootstrapping proposes that
    preschoolers discover word meanings by observing how words are used in the structure of sentences
  63. overregularization is an indication
    that the child is developing rules of grammar
  64. when a child says "we goed to school" and the mother replies "yes, we went to school", she is employing a
    recast
  65. a child that says "sammy hat" when he wants his brother Sammy to put on a hat is using
    telegraphic speech
  66. when a child says "my feets are cold" and the father replies "yes, your feet are cold", he is employing a
    recast
  67. when a child says "cookie good" and the mother replies "yes, this cookie does taste good", she is employing
    expansion
  68. a child who comments on what another has said and then adds a request to get the person to talk further is employing
    turnabout
  69. Miss Mathew's preschool class is performing a puppet show. Her students use more commands when the teacher puppet is speaking than when the student puppets are speaking. They are using language adaptations that are called
    speech registers
  70. according to the text, carefully conducted research has now shown that bilingualism
    has a positive impact on development

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