Biology Ch 9 and 10 Cell cycle/meiosis

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toribloom
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Biology Ch 9 and 10 Cell cycle/meiosis
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2012-10-29 23:59:28
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cell cycle
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Cell cycle
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  1. What occurs during Prophase? (Both Mitotic and Meiotic)
    • Chromatin condensed
    • Chromosomes visible
    • Sister chromatids held together at a centromere
    • Nucleolus disappears
    • spindle begins assembly
  2. What occurs during Metaphase? Both
    • Chromosomes align at equator
    • Spindle fibers
    • checkpoint M- delays anaphase until kinetochores attach properly to spindle fibers and proper alignment occurs
  3. What occurs during Anaphase?
    • sister chromatids separate at the centromere
    • opposite poles
    • spindle fibers disassemble
    • shortest phase
  4. What occurs in Telophase?
    • Spindles disappear
    • new nuclear envelopes form
    • nucleolus appears in both daughters
    • cytoplasm division requires cytokinesis.
  5. Sister chromatids form during which phase of the cell cycle?
    S phase
  6. Nuclear division is?
    karyokinesis
    Cytokinesis
    Karyokinesis
  7. During ______  _______ of meiosis the spindle re-forms and there are a haploid number of chromosomes present.
    Prophase 2
  8. Gametes are formed through the cell cycle process of:
    meiosis
    mitosis
    fertilization
    meiosis
  9. The reproductive cell of males is called ______.
    sperm
  10. Characteristics of Turner syndrome?
    Longer arms
    broad chest
    neck webbing
    underdeveloped ovaries
    underdeveloped uterus
    • broad chest
    • neck webbing
    • underdeveloped ovaries
  11. A pair of homologous chromosomes in synapsis is called a _______.

    gamete
    bivalent
    oocyte
    bivalent
  12. Which phase of meiosis do sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles?
    metaphase II
    Anaphase II
    Prophase II
    Telophase II
    Anaphase II
  13. During Telophase II cytokinesis occurs resulting in two ____ cells.
    Diploid/Haploid
    haploid
  14. A condition during which there is only one copy of a chromosome in a diploid organism is called?
    monosomy
  15. When are the 3 cell cylce checkpoints?
    • G1 DNA undamaged
    • G2 DNA replicated properly
    • M (between metaphase and Anaphase) Spindle assembly
  16. What is the result if a checkpoint "fails"?
    apoptosis
  17. What is the difference between mitosis and cytokinesis?
    • Mitosis is nuclear division
    • Cytokinesis is cytoplasm division
  18. During M Phase, the microtubular apparatus assmebles and binds to the _________.
    Chromosomes
  19. A ring of _____ constricts the center of the cell causing cleavage furrows.
    actin
  20. The ________ is assembled in the area between daughter nuclei of a prokaryotic cell.
    Phragmoplast
    nucliod
    septum
    phragmoplast
  21. During G1 the  ________ replicate.
    organelles
  22. During S phase the ____ replicates
    DNA
  23. During G2 phase all ________ are produced.
    enzymes
  24. RB is responsible for interpreting growth and nutrient availability signals.
    true/false
    True

  25. What are the 4 steps of Binary Fission?
    • 1- DNA replication
    • 2- Two chromosomes separate
    • 3- Plasma membrane grows inward creating a septum.
    • 4- Cell divides into two daughter cells.
  26. During ____ ____ of meiosis the spindle re-forms and there are a haploid number of chromosomes present.
    prophase 2
  27. a tetrad is also known as a _______.
    bivalent
  28. An egg with 24 chromosomes is fertilized by a normal sperm resulting in a condition called _____.
    trisomy
  29. During ______ ____ of meiosis, the spindle forms, chromosomes condense, the nuclear envelope fragments, the nucleolus disappears, homologous chromosomes pair off, and crossing-over occurs.
    Prophase I
  30. Homologous chromosomes lie side-by-side during ______ and form a tetrad.
    synapsis
  31. The central purpose of meiosis is to increase or reduce the chromosome number from 2n to n?
    reduce
  32. During independent assortment, homologous chromosomes/genes segregate?
    chromosomes
  33. During _______ I of meiosis the spindle disappears and interkinesis follows.
    telophase
  34. ____ ________ is a momosomic condition where the individual has only one sex chromosome (x).
    Turner syndrome
  35. A condition during which there is only one compy of a chromosome in a diploid organism.
    monosomy
  36. In a plan'ts life cycle daughter cells of meiosis become haploid gametes/spores.
    Spores
  37. Gametes are formed in animals by a process called _____.
    meiosis
  38. _______ is when homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis i.
    synapsis
    crossing over
    nondisjunction
    nondisjunction
  39. A male with an extra X chromosome results in which syndrome?
    Klinefelters
  40. Crossing-over occurs in meiosis/mitosis?
    meiosis
  41. Bivalents occur during meiosis/mitosis?
    meiosis
  42. Cytokinesis occurs during ______(Mitosis/Meiosis)  in _____ to _______ phase.
    mitosis, anaphase to telophase
  43. B53 is a protein used during G1 _____ and will trigger _____ if DNA is damaged.
    checkpoint, apoptosis
  44. What are somatic cells?
    Diploid cells, all body cells other than sperm and oocytes.
  45. DNA in the nucleus is a tangled mass of threads called _____.
    Chromatin
    Chromatid
    Kinetochores
    chromatin
  46. Humans have __ chromosomes, ___ pairs. 
    46, 23
  47. The 44 chromosomes other than the sex cells are called _____.
    autosomes
  48. Chromosomes are made up of ____.
    DNA
  49. Genes are found in the nucleus and also found in the _______ of a cell.
    mitochondria
  50. Interkinesis occurs between ______ and ________ during meiosis.
    Prophase I; Metaphase I
    Telophase I; Prophase II
    Telophase I; Prophase II
  51. A ____ is formed by fusion of gametes.
    zygote
  52. RB of checkpoint 1, G1, interpretes growth and nutrient available.
    true/false
    true
  53. Only sperm and egg cells have _____ number (n).
    haploid
  54. The _____ is a region of constriction on a chromosome.
    centromere
  55. _______ are protein complexes that help in attaching spindles.
    Kinetochores
  56. The _______, the main microtubule organizing center of the cell, divides before mitosis begins.
    centrosome
  57. The protein ___ makes up the microtubules.
    tubulin
  58. ______ is when new tumors form which are distant from the primary tumor.
    metastasis
  59. ______ is when new blood essels form to service a tumor.

    angiogenesis
    metastasis
    angiogenesis
  60. _______ get smaller as we get older, when cancer is present they do not get smaller.
    telomeres
  61. Proto-oncogenes stimulate the ____ ____ and prevent _____.
    cell cycle, apoptosis
  62. Tumor-suppressor genes inhibit ____ ___ and promote ____ and G0 phase.
    cell cycle, apoptosis
  63. ______ are unicellular.
    prokaryotes
  64. Binary fission (prokaryotes) and mitosis (eukaryotes) ensure that the ________ cells are genetically ____ to the parent.
    daughter, identical
  65. What are gametes?
    sperm and egg cells
  66. ______ ______ undifferentiated cells that can divide and become specialized.
    stem cells
  67. _____ is nuclear division, reducing the chromosome number from diploid to the haploid number.
    Meiosis
  68. During Meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair forming a _____.
    synapsis (synaptonemal complex)
  69. Gametes fuse at _________, chromosomes donated by parents combine.
    fertilization 
  70. ________ occurs between meiosis I and II.
    interkinesis
  71. Meiosis II Metaphase?
    haploid chromosomes align at the metaphase plate.
  72. Meiosis Anaphase II?
    Sister chromatids separate at the centromeres; two daughter chromosomes move toward the poles
  73. Meiosis Telophase II and cytokinesis?
    • four haploid cells
    • mature and develop into gametes
  74. Meiosis requires ___ nuclear divisions, mitosis requires ___ nuclear division.
    two, one
  75. Meiosis produces ___ daughter nuclei and daughter cells, mitosis produces ___.
    four, two
  76. Daughter cells of mitosis and meiosis. 
    haploid/diploid?
    • mitosis- diploid
    • meiosis- haploid
  77. _____ syndrome is when a male has one Y but tow or more X chromosomes.
    Klinefelter
  78. _____ syndrome is when males have two Y chromosomes.
    • Jacobs
    • taller, persistent acne, speech and reading problems
  79. ________ syndrome is when chromosome 7 loses an end piece. Children look like pixies, poor academics, good verbal and musical skills, lack of elastin causes cardiovascular problems and skin aging.
    williams
  80. _______ syndrome a deletion causing a small head, mentally retarded, facial abnormalities, abnormal glottis and larynx.
    cri du chat (cry of the cat)
  81. ______ syndrom is when chromosomes 2 and 20 are exchanged, may produce some abnormalities
    Alagille
  82. Gamatophyte have a ______ number of chromosomes, and sporophytes have a _____ number.
    haploid, diploid

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