Test 2 Pharm

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  1. Kidney tubules
    Proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct
  2. Name 5 factors that increase sodium excretion following lunch at Keifer's.
    • 1)  Decreased renal nerve activity- alpha 1 receptor stimulates proximal tubular reabsorption.
    • 2)  Decreased B1 stimulation of renin secretion- decreased renin, AII- inhibition of proximal reabsorption
    • 3)  Decreased AII-decreased Aldo, inhibition of distal tubular Na transport via ENac
    • 4)  Dilution of plasma protein concentration- increased GFR, icnreased renal interstitial pressure, inhibition of proximal reabsorption
    • 5)  Volume expansion, low pressure baroreflex inhibition of ADH
    • 6)  Alcohol- supresses ADH secretion- Inhibition of CD water reabsorption
  3. Elevated venous pressure and lowered protein production.
    Cirrhosis of the liver
  4. A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that inhibits the reabsorption of bicarb in the proximal convoluted tubule.  Weak diuretic properties.
  5. Loop diuretics inhibit the Na/K/2Cl cotransport in the ascending loop of Henle, resulting in retention of Na, Cl, and water in the tubule.
    Bumetanide, Furosemide, Torsemide, Ethacrynic Acid
  6. These drugs are the most efficacious of the diuretics.
    Bumetanide, Furosemide, Torsemide, Ethacrynic Acid
  7. Inhibit reabsorption of Na and Cl in the distal convoluted tubule, resulting in retention of water in the tubule.
  8. Most commonly used diuretic for the tx of hypertension?
  9. An aldosterone antagonist that inhibits the aldosterone-mediated reabsorption of Na and secretion of K.
  10. Two drugs that work on teh collecting tubule and duct to block Na channels.
    Amiloride, triamterene
  11. Agents can prevent loss of K that occurs with thiazide or loop diuretics.
    Spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene
  12. Act on the proximal convoluted tubule
  13. Act on the ascending loop of henle
    Bumetanide, furosemide, torsemide, ethacrynic acid
  14. Act on the distal convoluted tubule
  15. Act on the collecting tubule and duct
    Spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene
  16. Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
    • (Please take a SEAT)
    • Spironolactone
    • Eplerenone
    • Amiloride
    • Triamterene
  17. Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
    A steroid similar to aldostrone; antagonist effect
  18. Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
    Blocks the aldo receptor, more specific
  19. Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
    Similar in structure to folic acid, block ENaC
  20. Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
    Directly blocks apical membrane ENAC channel in the principal cells of the collecting duct.
  21. Potassium-sparing diuretics work by
    Blocking Na+ reabsorption in the CCD
  22. Hypokalemic effects of K-sparing diuretcs are due to a decrease in K+ secretion as Na/K exchange occurs in teh collecting duct.  Blocking Na entry lowers transepithelial potential reducing driving force for K+ potential.
  23. When combined with other natriuresis from other diuretics, the K+ sparing effect is greatly ______
  24. Which K+-sparing diuretic has less sex steroid actions?
  25. Which K+-sparing diuretic has an onset of action of 2-4 days with full effects not seen for weeks?  it is metabolized in the liver.
  26. Which K+-sparing diuretic has diuresis that begins within 2 hours and duration is 24 hours.  It is not metabolized and is excreted intact.
  27. Prevent hyperkalemia when giving K+-sparing diuretcs by giving ____
    Other diuretics (loop diuretics and thiazide)
  28. Which K+-sparing diuretic can cause gynecomastia, menstrual irregularities, antiandrogen effects?
  29. Adverse effects of K+-sparing diuretics?
    Hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis (infrequent when used with loop and thiazide diuretics)
  30. Which thiazide is better for patients with chronic kidney disease?
    Metolazone, Indapamide
  31. Name the Thiazide and Thiazide-like Diuretics
    Hydrochlorothiazide, Chlorothiazide, Chloralidone, Indapamide, Metolazone
  32. Developed to preferentially increase Cl- excretion over HCO30 excretion.
    Thiazide diuretics
  33. Why is the magnitude of effect of thiazide diuretics lower?
    They work on the Distal Convoluted Tubule
  34. Decreases Ca excretion --> hypercalcemia --> reduce osteoporosis
    Thiazide diuretics
  35. Synthesized to achieve inhibition of carbonic anhydrase
    Sulfanamide derivatives
  36. Thiazide Diuretics are used to treat
    • COCHRaN is on thiazides
    • Congestive Heart Failure
    • Osteoporosis
    • Chronic renal failure
    • Hypertension
    • Renal calculi
    • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Card Set:
Test 2 Pharm
2012-10-26 03:53:07

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