Unit 3

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  1. epidemioloy
    the study of the distribution of disease or health conditions (what) and their determinants (how) in a given population (who) and location (where) during a specified period (when)
  2. incidence
    • rate of occurrence of new cases
    • significance to disease rate - trend shows incr or decr - is health intervention program working
  3. prevalence
    • total number of cases of disease in a population
    • significance of disease rate - health resource allocation (pt f/u, education, treatment)
  4. sporadic occurence
    • randomly occuring cases
    • e.g. flesh-eating disease (necrotizing fascilitis)
  5. endemic
    • low incidence
    • persistent in a given location
    • e.g. Lyme disease
  6. epidemic
    • incidence exceeds historical number of cases (mean/median)
    • e.g. seasonal flu epidemic
  7. pandemic
    • world-wide/global epidemic
    • e.g. 2009 H1N1 pandemic
  8. flesh eating disease (2)
    • 1) high fever >38 (found in many disease)
    • 2) pain disportional to size of wound (sometimes not visible)
  9. communicable or infectious disease
    • an illness that is caused by an infectious agent and/or its toxin that can be transimitted directly and/or indirectly via
    • human to human
    • animal to human
  10. small pox
    only infectious disease that has been eradicated from earth
  11. polio
    eliminated in North America (elimination = polio free in a country/continent)
  12. zoonoses
    primary an animal disease that is transfered to humans
  13. animal to human disease:
    poultry >
    birds >
    • poultry > salmonella
    • birds > parrot fever, psittaccosis (resp infection > pneumonia)
  14. psittaccosis
    resp infection > pneumonia
  15. period of communicability
    period of time during which an infected person can pass on the infection to other susecptible people
  16. seasonal flu POC
    • 1 day before s/s appear
    • (s/s 1-4 days after entering)
    • 5-7 after becoming sick
    • children can pass 7+ days
  17. Hepatitis A POC
    • IP: 28-30 days
    • max infectivity occurs in latter half of IP continues a few days after jaundice onset
  18. SARS (? disease) POC
    • virus disease
    • IP = 2-10 days
    • w/in 3ft / contact
    • recent travel to Asia w/in 10 days + contact
    • 10 days s/s is gone
    • only inf. when s/s visible but take precautions
  19. Typhoid fever (? disase)
    • bacterial disease
    • fecal-oral route
    • pass stool + urine that is infected up to 3 months!
    • 2-5% chronic carriers
  20. communicability
    • degree of contagiousness
    • depends on POC - (a) contact rate + (b) time allowed for spread of infection
    • e.g. asymptomatic infection
  21.  Basic Reproductive Number R0
    • the # of new cases that can be produced by an infected person w/ a particular infection
    • R0 > 1 in order for an epidemic to occur
    • R0 < 1 = no epidemic
    • greater R0 = more contagious
  22. 4 reasons why people may get the "flu"
    • 1) vaccine only has 3 strains (2 Type A + 1 Type B) (circulating strain doesn't mean vaccine strain)
    • 2) flu like symptoms doesn't mean flu
    • 3) already infected
    • 4) vaccine does not contain live virus

Card Set Information

Author:
annzors
ID:
180010
Filename:
Unit 3
Updated:
2012-10-28 06:09:43
Tags:
microbiology
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Description:
midterm 2
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