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- June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest
- invasion force in history)
- stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking
- France. The turning point
- of World War II.
1309. Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied
- advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944,
- Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which
- pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the
- German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
1313. Hiroshima, Nagasaki
1314. Yalta Conference
1315. Potsdam Conference
- First and second cities to be hit by atomic bombs, they were bombed
- after Japan refused to surrender and accept the Potsdam Declaration.
- Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, 1945 and Nagasaki was bombed on August
- 9, 1945.
- February, 1945 - Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make
- final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the
- proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League
- of Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three
- post-war zones of occupation, although a fourth zone was later created
- for France. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in
- exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula.
- July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in
- Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if
- they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
1334. Truman Doctrine
1335. Marshall Plan
- 1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by
- Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed
- massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize
- the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of
339. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
1340. Warsaw Pact
1341. Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
1342. Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)
- Chartered April, 1949. The 11 member nations agreed to fight for each
- other if attacked. It is an international military force for enforcing
- its charter.
- To counter the NATO buildup, the Soviets formed this military
- organization with the nations of Eastern Europe. Also gave Russia an
- excuse for garrisoning troops in these countries.
- September, 1954 - Alliance of non-Communist Asian nations modelled after
- NATO. Unlike NATO, it didn't establish a military force.
- Members were the U.S., Great Britain, Turkey, Iran and West Pakistan.
- Treaty to improve U.S. relations and cooperation with Latin and South
- America. Fairly successful, similar to ANZUS.
1349. Korean War, limited war
1350. Truman-MacArthur Controversy
- After WWII, Korea had been partitioned along the 38th parallel into a
- northern zone governed by the Soviet Union, and a southern zone
- controlled by the U.S. In 1950, after the Russians had withdrawn,
- leaving a communist government in the North, the North invaded the
- South. The U.N. raised an international army led by the U.S. to stop
- the North. It was the first use of U.N. military forces to enforce
- international peace. Called a limited war, because the fighting was to
- be confined solely to the Korean peninsula, rather than the countries
- involved on each side attacking one another directly.
- Truman removed MacArthur from command in Korea as punishment for
- MacArthur's public criticism of the U.S. government's handling of the
- war. Intended to confirm the American tradition of civilian control
- over the military, but Truman's decision was widely criticized.
1351. Mahatma Gandhi
1352. Dien Bien Phu
1353. Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh
1354. Bricker Amendment
1355. John Foster Dulles
1356. Massive Retaliation
- Great revolutionary who led India to independence from Great Britain
- through passive resistance and civil disobedience based upon Henry David
- Thoreau's doctrines.
- France had exercised colonial control of Indochina until WWII. After
- Japan's defeat in 1945, the Viet Minh seized Hanoi and declared the
- North an independent republic. War with France broke out in 1946. In
- the Spring of 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded and destroyed the primary
- French fortress in North Vietnam at Dien Bien Phu. Lead to the
- withdrawal of France from Indochina.
- North Vietnamese leader who had lead the resistance against the Japanese
- during WW II and at the end of the war had led the uprising against the
- French Colonial government. He had traveled in Europe, educated in
- Moscow, and was an ardent Communist. Became President of the North
- Vietnamese government established after the French withdrawal. Often
- called the George Washington of North Vietnam.
- Proposal that international agreements negotiated by the executive
- branch would become law if and only if they were approved by Congress
- and didn't conflict with state laws. Isolationist measure, didn't pass.
- As Secretary of State. he viewed the struggle against Communism as a
- classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the
- Eisenhower doctrine.
- In the 1950's after Stalin died, Dulles and Eisenhower warned the
- Soviets that if aggression was undertaken, the U.S. would retaliate with
- its full nuclear arsenal against the Soviet Union itself. However, the
- U.S. would not start conflicts.
1358. Preemptive Strike
1359. Nikita Khrushchev, 1955 Geneva Summit
1360. Hungarian Revolt
1361. Abdul Nasser, Suez Crisis
1362. Peaceful coexistence
1363. Eisenhower doctrine
1364. Common Market
- The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking
- the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R.
- during the Cold War.
The doctrine of attacking an enemy force before they can attack you.
- Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S.
- Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and
- Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how
- peaceful coexistence could be achieved.
- 1956 - Hungary tried to overthrow the Communist government, partly
- encouraged by the U.S. The rebellion was quickly crushed.
- Egypt's dictator, Abdul Gamal Nasser, a former army officer who had led
- the coup that overthrew King Farouk, nationalized the Suez Canal in
- 1956, and was attacked by British, French and Israeli forces. The U.S.
- intervened on behalf of Egypt. Damaged Britain and France's standing as
- world powers.
- Khrushchev's proposal that the U.S. and U.S.S.R. could compromise and
- learn to live with each other.
- Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress
- authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country
- that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
- Popular name for the European Economic Community established in 1951 to
- encourage greater economic cooperation between the countries of Western
- Europe and to lower tariffs on trade between its members.
1365. Organization of American States (OAS)
1366. Castro's Revolution
1367. Bay of Pigs
1368. Alliance for Progress
1369. Cuban Missile Crisis
- Founded in 1948 by 21 nations at the Ninth Pa-American Conference, now
- consists of 32 nations of Central and South America and the U.S.
- Settled disputes between its members and discouraged foreign
- intervention in American disputes.
- 1959 - A band of insurgents led by Fidel Castro succeeded in
- overthrowing the corrupt government of Juan Baptista, and Cuba became
- 1961 - 1400 American-trained Cuban expatriates left from Nicaragua to
- try to topple Castro's regime, landing at the Bay of Pigs in southern
- Cuba. They had expected a popular uprising to sweep them to victory,
- but the local populace refused to support them. When promised U.S. air
- cover also failed to materialize, the invaders were easily killed or
- captured by the Cuban forces. Many of the survivors were ransomed back
- to the U.S. for $64 million. President Kennedy had directed the
- 1961 - Formed by John F. Kennedy to build up Third World nations to the
- point where they could manage their own affairs.
- October 14-28, 1962 - After discovering that the Russians were building
- nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, the U.S. announced a quarantine
- of Cuba, which was really a blockade, but couldn't be called that since
- blockades are a violation of international law. After 6 days of
- confrontation that led to the brink of nuclear war, Khrushchev backed
- down and agreed to dismantle the launch sites.
1371. Revenue Act of 1942
1372. G.I. Bill of Rights
1378. Taft-Hartley Act
381. Election of 1948: candidates, issues
- Effort to increase tax revenues to cover the cost of WWII by adding
- additional graduated steps to the income tax and lowering the threshold
- at which lower income earners began to pay tax.
- 1944 - Servicemen's Readjustment Act, also called the G.I. Bill of
- Rights. Granted $13 billion in aid for former servicemen, ranging from
- educational grants to housing and other services to assist with the
- readjustment to society after demobilization.
- 1947 - Senator Robert A. Taft co-authored the labor-Management Relations
- Act with new Jersey Congressman Fred Allan Hartley, Jr. The act
- amended the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and imposed certain
- restrictions of the money and power of labor unions, including a
- prohibition against mandatory closed shops.
- Democrat - Harry Truman
- Republican - John Dewey
- States' Rights Democrat (Dixiecrat) - Strom Thurmond
- Progressive - Henry Wallace
- The Democratic party was torn apart by the dispute between the liberal
- civil rights platform of the majority and the conservative, states'
- rights views of the southern membership, and the Progressive party
- pulled away liberal votes as well. Although everyone expected Dewey to
- win, Truman managed a surprise victory.
1384. Fair Deal
1387. House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
1388. Sen. Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957), McCarthyism
- Truman's policy agenda -- he raised the minimum wage from 65 to 75 cents
- an hour, expanded Social Security benefits to cover 10 million more
- people, and provided government funding for 100,000 low-income public
- housing units and for urban renewal.
- Committee in the House of Representatives founded on a temporary basis
- in 1938 to monitor activities of foreign agents. Made a standing
- committee in 1945. During World War II it investigated pro-fascist
- groups, but after the war it turned to investigating alleged communists.
- From 1947-1949, it conducted a series of sensational investigations
- into supposed communist infiltration of the U.S. government and
- Hollywood film industry.
- Wisconsin Senator who began sensational campaign in February, 1950 by
- asserting that the U.S. State Department had been infiltrated by
- Communists. In 1953 became Chair of the Senate Sub- Committee on
- Investigations and accused the Army of covering up foreign espionage.
- The Army-McCarthy Hearings made McCarthy look so foolish that
- further investigations were halted.
1392. Twenty-Second Amendment
- Proposed in 1947 and ratified in 1951. It limited the number of terms
- that a president may serve to two. Was brought on by FDR's 4-term
1398. McCarran-Walter Immigration Act
1399. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW)
1400. Interstate Highways Act
- 1952 - Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952, it kept limited
- immigration based on ethnicity, but made allowances in the quotas for
- persons displaced by WWII and allowed increased immigration of European
- refugees. Tried to keep people from Communist countries from coming to
- the U.S. People suspected of being Communists could be refused entry or
- Created by Republican Congress members under Ms. Overta Culp Hobby of
- Texas. Regulated through committees.
1944 - Began federal funding for an interstate highway system.