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To establish a positive classroom culture/environment we should:
Use WORDS and ACTIONS to show that he/she is approachable and is concerned about the students:
- Language choice
- Clothing and grooming
- body language
- room arrangement
- Useing classroom activities to establish an interactive, open climate:
- Activities that allow students to participate
- Activities that help students succeed
- Activities that are meaningful
To maintain a positive, open atmosphere
- displan an attitude of open acceptance to student contributions
- use verbal and non-verbal praise of student constributions
- Never tolerate student rudeness or hostile criticism of one anothere
- Do not show favoritism towar a student or a viewpoint
What does GLO stand for?
General Learning Outcomes
What are the General Learning Outcomes?
Knowledge, Skills, Behavior/Attitudes
What is a capstone course?
A final course in a student's academic major taht brings together and culminates hi or her educational experience
What is a syllabus?
A summary or outline of a course that includes essential information for a student's orientation, understanding, and success.
What is a rebound question?
This question is given right back to the student that asked it. "That's an interesting question Stephen. What would you do in that situation?"
What is a redirect question?
A question asked by one student, is asked to another student, "Judy, how would you handle the problem Cindy identified?"
What is a general question?
This question is offered to the group at large and anyone may answer
What is a specific question?
This question is directed to a specific student, "Fred, you've worked at front desk. What would you do?"
What is a follow-up question?
A question based on a student's comments: "Bob, why do you think it will be difficult?"
In general should be use open-ended or close-ended questions?
What is speaker anxiety and how do you reduce it?
What are the advantages of a field trip?
- allows students to observe procedures, skills, and behaviors in actual hospitality settings
- privides an enriching alternative to classroom teaching
- allows suduents to get to know one another better and to interact on hospitality issues
- motivates students to a higher level of interest
- combines the practical information gained on the field trip with the theory presented in the classroom
What are the disadvantages of a field trip?
- Requires considerable planning by the teacher for it to be successful
- Requires cooperation of the host site
- Timing of visit must be coordinated with the sites's availability
- Student transportation can be a problem
What is a vocalized pause?
A distracting sound such as (uhm, er, or ah) uttered by a speaker that interrupts his or her message.
What does the acronym
Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Sythesis, Evaluation
Who's taxonomy is KCAASE?
Verbs for Knowledge
List, state, define, memorize, name, repeat, recite, label
Students can recite or memorize objects or concepts
Verbs for Comprehension
describe, explain, identify, discuss, summarize
Students can elaborate upon what they have learned. They can explain the concept using their own words.
Verbs for Application
Apply, Use, Demonstyrate, Practice, Illustrate, Sketch, Prepare
Students understand what they have learned and can apply it in a real world situation.
Verbs for Analysis
Analyze, Distinguish, Differentiate, Calculate, Solve, Diagram
Students can look at an opject or concept and break it down into its parts.
Verbs for Synthesis
Compose, Plan, Propose, Design, Create, Rewrite, Develop
Given the parts, students assemble them to construct a unique object or concept.
Verbs for Evaluation
Critique, Appraise, Judge, Measure, Assess, Estimate, Justify
Students can judge the value or quality of the object or concept.
What is a game?
structured activity in which participants compete within a set of rules to achieve an objective
What is a simulation?
a scaled-down enactment of reality.
Effective endings include?
- Revisit Main Topics: List main topics discussed that day
- Cliffhanging: Posing a thought-provoking question or problem to students
- Questing: students are sent out of class to seek information (possibly in the assigned reading)
- The Minute Essay: Students write a response to one or two questions during the last 3 to 5 minutes of class
- One Question Quiz: Give a one question quiz on the material just covered.
- The Whip: Go arround the room asking each student to individually respond to a question with one word or a short phrase (what was one surprise is today's class?)
- Collective Summary: Have students generate a summary of the day's main points.
- Five Question Quiz: prior to class, create five true/false or multiple choice questions on the key concepts to be covered
What does CPRS stand for?
Conditional, Preformance, Repetition, Standard
What is CPRS an acronym of?
Components of Instructional Objectives
What is an instructional objective?
Statement describing an instructional outcome
What is the Condition part of the instructional objective?
Circumstances or situations under which students will complete the performance
What is the Performance part of the instructional objective?
What the students will be able to do
What is the Repetition part of the instructional objective?
Number of times the competence must be demonstrated
What is the Standard part of the instructional objective?
Minimum level of performance that is acceptable
What is typically a good length for a lecture presentation?
What does the acronym LEARN stand for
Let, Engage, Allow, Reconnect, Nudge
LEARN is what?
Conditions for adult learning
The L in Learn
Let discussion happen
The E in LEARN?
Engage their experience
The A in LEARN?
Allow active involvement
The R in LEARN?
Reconnect content relevant to their experiences
The N in LEARN?
Nudge or Initiate numberous activities (to appeal to different learning styles)
What are the four steps to planning a lesson?
- 1. Identify subject matter
- 2. Identify general learning outcomes (GLOs)
- 3. Prepare instructional objectives (IO's)
- 4. Prepare lesson plan details
Any spoken message consists of 3 elements
Verbal (7%), Vocal(38%), Visual(55%)
What is a symposim?
Each panel member, in turn, presents a brief speech on a single topic or problem
What is a panel?
Panel members interact directly withg one another on a specific issue
What is a forum?
The period of time when an audience asks questions of the members of a panel or symposium
What is feedback?
The information a teacher gives students about how they are performing
What kinds of non-verbal communication can be useful in teaching?
What is a prerequisite?
A course or requirement a student must complete before they can enroll in a course.
What are examples of effective presentation styles?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of student projects?
What are course objectives?
Specific statesments that identify what students should be able to do after having successfully completed a course
What are examples of non-verbal communication?
What are formative evaluations?
ongoing evaluation conducted during a course providing continuous feedback to determine progress toward learning objectives
What are summative evaluations?
Conducted at the end of a learning unit or course (final exam)
What does INTRO stand for?
What is a test blueprint?
Method of evaluating a test to detmine if the question cover all instructional objectives and Bloom's Six Levels of learning
How can you reduce cheating in the classroom?
What is training?
Training prepares a person to perform a specifice job-related skill or set of skills
What is education?
Student is obtaining knowledge that will not be immediately applied
How can humor be effectively used in the classroom?
What is an in-basket?
An interactive teaching technique where students review and prioritize a set of job tasks
What is included in the student/teacher relationship?
- 1. get to know each student
- 2. recognize the student as an individual
- 3. recognize the student as a person of value
- 4. provide constructive feedback
What are the three types of essays?
To avoid a negative classroom environment:
- avoid embarassing students who make mistakes
- avoid activities that make students compete with one another
A positive academic environment towards diversity helps hospitality students:
practice behaviors and skills that will help them interact appropriately with future guests and co-workers
Students are motivated by classroom methads and information that relate to their:
- past experiences
- interestes and values
How can you help students become motivated learners?
- demonstrate the need for learning
- relate negative consequences if you dont have this info
- encourage students
- commend students when they are successful
- generate intterest
Classroom culture/environment is established when?
first day of class
- Facial expression
- Eye contact
- Posture and movement
- Proper use of lectern
- Appearance-clothing and grooming
- Distractinvg visual mannerisms-unnessesary movements or gestures
- Volume-loudness and softness of voice
- Rate-the number of words per minute
- Pitch-the highness or lowness of voice
- Articulation, grammar, and pronunciation
- Vocalized pauses-a distracting word or word sound
- Vocal variety-using different rates, pitches, and volume levels
- Distracting vocal mannerisms-unnecessary sounds
- word choice
- use terms consistently
- be word efficient
- be aware of accents
being excited about the material
What are some tips for general classroom communication?
- be yourself
- encourage student participation
- study and practice effective personal presentation
- use humor
How can we use humor effectively?
- humor should make a point and should emphasize a learning concept, not replace it
- if you want to tell a joke on someone, tell it on yourself
- if you have the slightest concern that the humor may make someone uncomfortable or embarrassed, dont use it
- use homor in moderation
- what is humerous changes from culture to culture
Two Main types of Feedback?
Oral feedback - during class (can be given to individuals or the entire class)
Written feedback - can use an evaluation checklist
Feedback should be given in a timely manner (less than 2 weeks from assignment)
Whare is teaching in the margins?
comments written in the margins of essays or term papers
- give respectful comments
- be clear and useful in what you write
- use ink of a non-red color
What are suggested activities for ending a course?
- create essay questions for the final exam
- shake hands
- chapter collages
- play games that summarize
What are four content presentation methods?
- field trip
What are some tips for a successful lecture?
- lecture achieves a specific learning objective
- know your subject
- keep lecutes short
- make your points clearly and directly
- prepare thoroughly
- use a positive personal presentation style
- Use techniques to motiveate students to listen to the lecture
- used techniques to gain students interest
- use techniques to aid students udnerstantding and retention
- Use techniques to involve students in the lecutre
- Use techniques to reinforce information presented in the lecture
What is norm-referenced testing/grading?
compares students against other pretested students, rquires large numbers of tested students to develop reliable comparisons
What is brainstorming?
An interactive teaching method whte students contribute responses to a problem or need statement
Demonstrations can be used to:
- develop motor skills
- teach problem-solving skills
- teach analytical skills
- illustrate a principle or why a method or procedure works
- teach teamwork
- teach interpersonal skills
Advantages of demonstrations
- because it is visual, a deomonstration helps students understand and retain information
- a deomonstration gives students a model to follow
Disadvantages of demonstrations
- may require equipment
- may not allow all students to see well
- may require special classroom setup
- must be done accurately to be meaningful
- can be difficult with large groups
When an interactive activity becomes student driven, the teacher asumes the role of
- coach and monitor
- at the end ot the activity the teacher's role becomes that of debriefing and identifying the relevence of the exercise
Interactive opportunities include
- student presentation
- case study
- in-basket exercise
- games and simulations
- role play
- small group discussion
Types of formative evaluations
- discussion participation
- class activities
- feedback paper
- one-on-one discussions and conferences
- homework assignments
- weekly quizzes
Types of summative evaluation
- criterion-reference testing: measures student performance according to criteria specified in a courses instructional objectives
- norm-reference testing- compares students against other pretested students, requires large numbers of tested students to develop reliable comparisons
There are five types of test items
- multiple choice
There are three types of essays
What does PRE stand for?
provocative, restricted, extended
What is a provacative essay?
requires students to take a position on a statement and defend it
What is a restricted essay?
poses a specific problem and requires students to recall and organize information and develop a conclusino within the limits of that problem
What is a extended response essay?
students determine the length and direction of responses
Methods to decrease cheating
- when starting a course, quote your institution's policy on cheating at the beginning of a course or in the syllabus
- when starting a course, set ground rules or behaviors of conduct that the class will follow throughout the course.
- monitoring exams: implement strong punishment if caught
- require students to sit in every other seat.
- reading 10% remembered
- listen 20% remembered
- see 30% remembered
- see/hear 50% remembered
- studygroups/group discussion (talk over) 70% remembered
- role play/in-basket (use and do) 80% remembered
- student presentations/one-on-one training (teach others) 95% remembered
When a teacher or one of the students monopolizes the classroom discussion
CHE stock pot
centralizes teacher evealuation comments
For communicating ideas and feelings
hearing, sight, touch