Patho 1

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Anonymous
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180079
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Patho 1
Updated:
2012-10-26 12:51:49
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Vocab
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Unit 10
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  1. Respiration
    • Divided into three parts
    • 1. Ventilation: movement of air between atmoshpere & lungs
    • 2. Perfusion: flow of blood through the lungc
    • 3. diffusion: transfer of gases between lungs & blood
  2. Central Chemo Receptors
    Located in the Hypothalimus

    • ¡Measure
    • PCO2 and pH in cerebrospinal fluid

    • ¡Increase
    • respiration when PCO2 increases or pH decreases
  3. Peripheral Chemoreceptors
    Located in aortic arch

    • ¡Measure
    • PO2 in arterial blood

    • ¡Increase
    • respiration when PO2 <60 mm Hg
  4. Ventilation/Perfusion Ratio
    • Comparison of inhaled volume of air to perfusion of lung fields
    • v= ventilation
    • q= perfusion

    Normal v:q ratio is .8 (4L air: 5l blood)
  5. High V/Q
    • Normal Ventilation: decreased perfusion
    • or
    • Increased ventilation: normal perfusion



    low cardiac output

    •   pulmonary
    • emboli

      pneumothorax

      hyperventilation
  6. Low V/Q
    • Decreased ventilation : normal perfusion
    • OR
    • Normal ventilation : increased perfusion

      hypoventilation

      obstructive lung disease

      restrictive lung disease

     high-output heart failure
  7. Gas exchange
    Occurs becuase of pressure gradient.

    Gradients move from high to low
  8. Uncompensated Acid-Base restoration
    • 1. pH is abnormal
    • 2. PaCO2 and or HCO3 are abnormal
  9. Partial Compensation
    Acid-Base Restoration
    • 1. pH is abnormal
    • 2. One value is consistent with pH
    • 3. Compensating value is opposite of pH
  10. Comensated
    Acid-Base restoration
    • 1. pH is normal
    • 2. Other values may still be out of range
  11. Normal/Corrected
    Acid -Bae Restoration
    1. all values are with in normal range
  12. Pneumothorax
    • 1.Air enters the pleural cavity
    • 2.Air takes up space, restricting lung expansion
    • 3.Partial or complete collapse of the affected lung
    • --Spontaneous: an air-filled blister on the
    •      lung ruptures
    • --Traumatic: air enters through chest
    • injuries
    •           ºTension: air enters pleural cavity
    •             through the wound on inhalation but cannot leave     on      exhalation
    •             ºOpen: air enters pleural cavity through
    •              the wound on inhalation and leaves on exhalation
  13. Atelectasis
    • 1. Alveolar collapse
    •   -Hypo-inflation
    •   -Compression
    •  -Decrease compliance

    2.Eliminate compression and deep inspiration
  14. What is needed for the basic acide-base calculations
    • Ventilation
    • pH- find out if acid/alkaline
    • look for value that matches the pH (acidic or alkaline)
    • PaCO2
    • HCO3

    • Oxygenation: is oxygen getting to the tissues
    • PaO2
    • SaO2 (SpO2) red light thing on the finger only an estimation
    • Hgb (normal is about 12-15 in women, 14-17 in men)
  15. Pleural Effusion
    Fluids collect between the visceral & parietal pleur. Pleural cavity

    1.Hydrothorax: Serious fluid in the cavity

    2.Empyema: Pus in the cavity

    3.Chylothorax: lymph

    4.Hemothorax: blood
  16. Pulmonary Edema
    Fluid is in the interstitial space of the lung tissue
  17. Pneumonia
    Inflammation of Alveoli & Bronchioles

    Inhaled pathogen->Inflammation->mucous productions and edema

    • Typical:
    • - Lobar: affect an entire lobe of the lung
    • - Bronchopneumonia: patchy distribution over more than one lobe

    • Atypical:
    • viral & mycoplasma infections of alveolar septum or interstitium.

    • S/S: Fever, Fatigue, malaise, x-ray infiltrates,
    • Cough:
    • Productive cough- viral or bacterial
    • Non productive cough - mycoplasma
  18. Emphysema
    • S/S:
    • -—Dyspnea and increased ventilatory effort
    • —-Barrel chest (increased AP diameter)
    • -—“Clubbing” of digits
    • -—Hypoxemia
    • -—Hypercarbia
    •  
    • Treament:
    • -—Vaccination to reduce infection risk
    • -—Bronchodilators
    • -—Inhaled steroids
    • -—CAUTIOUS  use of supplemental oxygen (CO2 Narcosis)
  19. Tuberculosis
    —World’s foremost cause of death from a single infectious agent

    —Causes 26% of avoidable deaths in developing countries

    —Drug-resistant forms

    • —Mycobacterium tuberculosis hominis
    • -Aerobic
    • -Protectivem waxy capsule
    • -Can stay alive in “suspended animation” for years

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