Caused by decreased cardiac output, increased urinary excretion of calcium
what are the S/S of hypocalcemia
hyperexcitability, hypotension, dysrhythmias, trousseau's and chvosteks.
The nurse is providing care to a client with dehydration. The nurse notes that the morning laboratory values reveal an elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine plus a decrease in the urine output. While
discussing these results with the physician, the nurse should request which order?
Decrease IV fluids from 150 mL/hr.
The nurse is completing an assessment on a client and notes distended neck veins while the client was in high Fowler's position. What should the nurse expect to find upon further examination?
Bounding pulse and an elevated blood pressure
An 82-year-old male client admitted 3 days ago for dehydration has the following orders: vital signs per floor routine, regular diet encourage fluids, IV fluids at 150 mL/hr, ambulate TID. Interpret the following assessment data: disoriented to time, BP 160/85, P 96 and bounding, hyperactive bowel sounds and complaints of cramping. What should the nurse suspect?
Which client is at risk for hypertonic dehydration?
56-year-old man with diabetes mellitus in ketoacidosis
(Hypertonic dehydration occurs when there is more fluid lost in the vascular space than electrolytes, leaving the solution hypertonic. The body starts a fluid shift to equal out the concentration and improve the circulatory volume. Ketoacidosis contributes to the excess fluid loss through increased respiratory effort and decreased electrolyte loss. When a client loses blood volume, the client loses fluid and electrolytes together, so the dehydration is more isotonic. In heart failure, there is more fluid in the vascular space and no electrolyte loss so there is no dehydration.
A client with a history of hypertension has recently started diuretic therapy. Today the client complains of muscle weakness and irritability.What should the nurse suspect is the cause of the muscle weakness and irritability?
Which clinical manifestation indicates that a client's treatment for hyperkalemia is effective?
Pulse rate is 80 and regular.
A client with diabetes mellitus is having difficulties controlling his blood sugar. This client is also at risk for:
While taking the blood pressure on the right arm of a client, the nurse notes the right hand in flexion contraction. What action should the nurse take?
Remove the blood pressure cuff and administer oxygen.
A client is admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The nurse would expect the following arterial blood gas (ABG) results:
pH 7.28, PCO2 36, HCO3 18
A client's ABGs indicate diabetic acidosis. The nurse knows that, of the following, the least likely to cause metabolic acidosis is:
The client has the following ABG values: pH 7.50, HCO3 – 22 mEq/L, PCO2 30 mm Hg, PO2 96 mm Hg. What condition is most likely causing the respiratory alkalosis?
A client has a nasogastric tube for decompression that is draining a green fluid. The nurse notes the drainage has been consistently 200 mL or greater for three shifts. What action should the nurse take?
Monitor for signs and symptoms of metabolic alkalosis.
A client has had an elevated temperature (between 101 and 102 degrees F) for the several days. Despite receiving supportive care, the fever persists. The nurse is monitoring the client's laboratory values. Which result would the nurse anticipate?
A young male client is brought to the nursing unit after falling 30 feet from the outside of a building. X-ray study shows multiple fractured ribs. His respiratory effort has increased and his exhaled volume has decreased. The nurse assists the client to apply nasal cannula oxygen.
This action assists in preventing which acid-base disorder?
The nurse is reviewing the blood gas results from an adult client. The results are pH 7.28, CO2 45, HCO3 24. What symptom should the nurse expect to find when assessing the client?
An increase in the respiratory rate
A male client is admitted with a history of diabetes and diarrhea. His respiratory rate is elevated as a compensatory mechanism. What acid-base balance should the nurse expect?
What is also called extracellular fluid volume deficit (ECFVD)
What is severe dehydration, seen in older adults and in those who have extreme fluid losses
What can also be called ECFVE and is seen in both the vascular spaces and interstitial spaces
What is most often caused by over administration of hypotonic IV solutions
What is physiologically useless fluids found in areas such as the pleural cavity, periotoneal cavity, or pericardial sac
what are signs that a pt is dehydrated
dry mucous membranes
decreased skin turgor
A pt with inadequate fluid volume would have which signs