# Physics Bushong

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1. Structures that absorb X-rays
• (ie. bone)
2. Structures that transmit X-rays
• (ie. soft tissue)
3. The Inverse Square Law can be applied to distances greater than _________ times the longest dimension of the source
The inverse square law can be applied to distances greater than  SEVEN times the longest dimension of the source.
4. States that the intensity of radiation at a location is inversely proportional to the square of its distance from the source.
• The Inverse Square Law
5. A discrete bundle of energy
the x-ray photon
6. Photon energy is directly proportional to
photon frequency
7. Photon energy is ____________ proportional to photon wavelength
Photon energy is INVERSELY proportional to photon wavelength.
8. X-rays exist:
at the speed of light or not at all
9. E=hf
Planck's Quantum Equation
10. The longer the wavelength, the _____________ the energy of each photon.
• Lower
• (longer=lower)
11. The law of conservation of mass & energy states:
Energy & Matter can neither be destroyed or created
12. The properties of elctromagnetic radiation include:
(4)
• frequency
• wavelength
• velocity
• amplitude
13. Electromagnetic energy exists over a wide range called:
an energy continuum

A continuum is an uninterrupted (continuous) ordered sequence.
14. An atom of light
Photon
15. The smallest quantity of any type of electromagnetic energy
photon
16. A photon may be pictured as a small bundle of energy, sometimes called a
Quantum
17. A quantum of electromagnetic energy
an x-ray photon
18. Energy disturbances that move through space at the speed of light
photon
19. Mass of a photon
• Photons have NO MASS
• but they do have electric and magnetic fields
20. Speed of light
• 3x108 m/s
• The speed of light (c)
21. The velocity of electromagnetic radiation
3 x 108 m/s
22. Variations of amplitude over time
Sine wave
23. One-half the range from crest to valley over which the sine wave varies
• Amplitude
24. The number of wavelengths that pass a point of observation per second
• Frequency (f)
• measured in Hertz (Hz)
25. The rate of rise and fall
Frequency (f)
26. What is frequency measured in?
• Hertz (Hz)
• One hertz is equal to one cylce per second
• ie. 20 cycles in 10 sec is 2 Hz
27. The distance from one crest to another, one valley to another or from any point on the sine wave to the next corresponding point
Wavelength
28. What are the 3 parameters needed to describe electromagnetic energy?
• Velocity (v- measured in m/s)
• Frequency (f- measured in Hz)
• Wavelength
29. At a given velocity _______________ & ______________ are inversely proportional
wavelength & frequency
30. For electromagnetic energy, frequency and ____________ are inversely proportional
wavelength
31. The deviation of course that occurs when photons of visible light traveling in straight lines pass from one transparent medium to another
Refraction
32. ________ light consists of photons with wavelengths longer than visible light but shorter than microwaves
Infrared light
33. ___________ light is between visible light & ionizing radiation on the spectrum
Ultraviolet light
34. An x-ray photon contains ___________ energy than a visible light photon or an RF photon
considerably more
35. The frequency of x-radiation is much _________ and the wavelength is much _________ than for other types of electromagnetic energy
• Higher (frequency)
• Shorter (wavelength)
36. Where are x-rays produced?
Outside of the nucleus of excited atoms; emitted from the electron cloud
37. Where are gamma rays produced?
Inside the nucleus of the atom
38. A photon of x-radiation & a photon of visible light are fundamentally the same except that x-radiation has ________ frequency & hence a _________ wavelength
• Higher (frequncy)
• Shorter (wavelength)
39. X-rays are identified by
Energy
40. Visible light tends to behave more like
Waves
41. X-ray photons tend to behave more like
Particles
42. The reduction in intesnsity that results from scattering and absorption
Attenuation
43. Transfer of energy from an electromagnetic field to matter.

Removal of x-rays from a beam via the photoelectric effect.
Absorption
44. Return or re-entry of an x-ray
Reflection
45. Passage of an x-ray beam through an anatomical part with no interaction with anatomical structures
Transmission

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