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An RNA/protein particle _______, is the RNA editor.
snRNP is a
special type of RNA combined with a protein.
snRNP participates in the _______ process that ______ and ________ pre-mRNA into ________.
editing; cuts; splices; mRNA.
As DNA is copied over to RNA, it first forms a first draft version called
heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) or pre-mRNA.
The edited transcript passes through a pore in the
Once mRNA is in the cytoplasm, it is used as
the blueprint for protein synthesis at the ribosome protein factory.
The entire gene, regulatory sequences, introns and exons, and a 3' -tail, is transcribed from
An "average" chromosome has ______ base pairs.
RNA has the capability of forming structures
that can splice themselves.
mess up the process of splicing.
blood disorders. These diseases result from abnormal transcription and/or translation of "a (alpha)" and "B-globin" genes.
a protein that makes up half of hemoglobin, the oxygen carrying protein of red blood cells.
Any mutations in the spliced region of genes, even though they may lie in introns and are not directly made into proteins, may alter
the normal stability of mRNA and therefore the translation of B-globin mRNA into B-globin protein, and the blood is unable to carry normal amounts of oxygen (a symptom called anemia).
5' untranslated region (5' UTR) is
where promoter is found.
3' untranslated region (3' UTR) is
after terminator, probably contributes to RNA stability.
Some mRNAs need to hang around a long time and get translated over and over, whil others
should disappear in a puff of smoke after thy're used once.
Once the gene is spliced and edited into its final form, it becomes
messenger RNA (mRNA). mRNA carries a code which is made into protein by the cell's machinery.
RNA is _______ into protein.
Translation changes nucleic acid "language"
to amino acid "language".
Protein synthesis occurs through the action of a macromolecular machine called
Ribosomes can be found floating in the cytoplasm, not apparently attached to anything; in that case, they are called
"free" ribosomes. Free ribosomes make proteins that the cell needs.
Nucleic acid polymer is coded message:
A, C, G, U
Protein plymer is output:
20 different types of amino acids strung together in a specific order make up the protein's primary structure.
messenger RNA (mRNA)
carries coded message.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
with proteins, forms ribosomes (protein factories); small and large subunits.
transfer RNA (tRNA)
"trucks" to bring amino acids to the growing protein strand.
Ribosome is made up of
ribosomal RNA and proteins.
Each tRNA has a unique
anticodon (a set of three ribonucleotides which will bind to the mRNA)
Ribosomes are the
There are two parts to the ribosome
When subunits come together on either side of the mRNA,
protein synthesis (translation) occurs
The large subunit of the ribosome has two special sites, termed "P" and "A". What are they?
The P site is where the growing polypeptide chain is made; the A site is where the new amino acids are added. In other words, the A site is where single tRNAs carrying their amino acid cargo are docked. The P site is where the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain is located.
1. Ribosome finds start.
2. Ribosome reads along mRNA and decodes mRNA to make polypeptide (immature protein).
3. Ribosomes finds stops.
4. Ribosome disassembles and translation stops.
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