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A sequence of mRNA bases that codes for a protein is called a
The complementary sequence of tRNA bases is called
The acceptor arm "stem" carries
an amino acid
Each tRNA type has a specific anticodon at one end and a "matching"
amino acid at the other.
What shape is tRNA?
Cloverleaf-shaped RNA molecule
Step 1 of 7 in the translation process:
Ribosomes attaches to mRNA: Ribosome assembly. 5'-AUG-3' is always the start codon. Its anticodn is 5'-CAU-3' (remember, it's antiparallel and complementary). The tRNA with the anticodon CAU always carries a methionine. When the AUG start signal is detected on the mRNA, Met-tRNA binds there.
Step 2 of 7 in the translation process:
AUG start codon matches up to tRNA-methionine: The binding of Met-tRNA triggers self-assembly of the ribosome at the site of tRNA binding. The large (60S) ribosomal subunit always assembles fo that the Met-tRNA is enveloped in the P site. The A site is empty at this point.
Step 3 of 7 in the translation process:
tRNA-amino acid arrives: Ribosome is assembled and ready to begin synthesis of the protein strand. The next codon is read. The Asp-tRNA nestles into the A site, next to the Met-tRNA which is still in the P site.
Step 4 of 7 in the translation process:
Peptide bonds form: Amino acids who find themselves snuggled together in the P and A sites decide they might as well form a peptide bond. When they do, the synthesis of protein has begun. The methionine is transferred to the Asp-tRNA and the tRNA which used to carry methionine is released to go get another one. This leaves the P site open.
Step 5 of 7 in the translation process:
Ribosome shifts three mRNA bases (met-tRNA is released, open spot occupied by new amino acid-tRNA): Met-Cys-tRNA moves inot the vacant P site as the ribosome ratchets three bases down (i.e., toward the 3' end) the mRNA molecule. Now, the A site is empy. The next codon is 5'-AUU-3'. This codes for isoleucine, so the Ile-tRNA will be bound to the ribosome complex at that site.
Step 6 of 7 in the translation process:
Polypeptide chain grows: Process continues, and the polypeptide chain grows.
Step 7 of 7 in the translation process:
Ribosome reaches stop codon; polypeptide released: The stop codon is reached. There is no tRNA for the stop codon; rather, the stop codon leaves the A site empy and the full-length protein is bound to the last tRNA at the P site. The ribosome disassembles, and the tRNA, protein, and ribosomal subunits all drift wawy from each other.
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