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similarity of structure in a pair of related words, phrases, or clauses.
i.e. "His purpose was to impress the ignorant, to perplex the dubious and to confound the scrupulous."
Juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, often in parallel structure, for clarity and power: “With malice toward none, with charity toward all…”
Inversion of usual word order, particularly to emphasize a point: "ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country."
Insertion of verbal unit- grammatically unrelated to the sentence- in a position that interrupts the normal syntactical flow of the sentence.
nouse phrase appositive
a noune phrase intended to identify, clarify, or amplify the noun it modifies: My father, the only pediatrician in a town of 7,000, was often called away..."
- deliberate omission of words which are implied by context:
- "and he to England shall along with you."
deliberate omission of conjunctions: "that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend oppose any for to assure the survivial and the sucess of liberty."
- deliberate use of many conjunction: "I said, 'who killed him?' and he said, 'I don't know who killed him but he's dead all right,' and it was dark and there was water..."
- repetition of consonant sounds in two or more adjacent words:
- "pusillanimous pussyfooters...nattering nabobs of negativism."
Side-by-side placement of coordinate elements: "My father, the only pediatrician in a town of 7000, was often called away -from dinner, from sleep, from our family- to suture some stupid kid who got her hand caught in the car door.
- repetition of similar vowel sounds, preceded and followed by different consonants, in the stressed syllables of adjacant words:
- "Refresh your zest for living."
repetition of the same word of groups of words at the beginnings of successive clauses:"We shall fight ont he beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills."
- Repetition of the same words at the end of successive clauses:
- "When we first came we were many and you were few. Now you ar emany and we are getting very few."
- Repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause.
- "The crime was common, common be the pain."
arrangement of words, phrases, or clauses in order of increasing importance:
"She was eager ti serve her family, her community and her country."
- Repetition of words in reverse grammatical order:
- "You dont' ride to get in shape for Quimby; you ride Quimby to get in shape."
the character ir credibilty of the speaker or writer as reflected in the speech of writing iteself.
the appeal to logic or reasoning
from the greek root for suffering or deep feeling. In rethoric the quality which appeals to the emotion of the audience or reader
- a deductive argument which asserts a major premise, proceeds to a minor premise and reaches a logical conclusion:
- Man is mortal; Socrates is man; therefore Socrates is mortal.