HHK150 Exam 2
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WHAT ARE ALL SIX NUTRIENTS?
- Carbohydrates: Primary preference for energy; some cells (brain, nervous system and blood) only use carbs for fuel.
- Protein: Growth and repair body cells
- Fat: Source of energy
- Minerals: Help your body work (example...calcium makes bones stronger)
- Vitamins: Regulate body functions (Vitamin C boosts your immune system)
- Water: Carries the nutrients throughout your body
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN GRAINS ARE REFINED?
The outer layer (Bran) and the inner layer (Germ) are removed leaving the middle layer (endosperm).
Refined carbs retain all the calories but most of the nutrients are lot during the refining process.
LIST FORMS OF FAT FROM BEST TO WORST AND EXPLAIN WHY THEY ARE IN THAT ORDER AS WELL AS FOOD CHOICES.
1. Polyunsaturated - in addition to what monounsaturated does it....reduces blood clots and inflamation and inhibits abnormal heart rythms.
2. Monounsaturated - Lowers LDL cholesterol and Triglyceride levels; reduces blood pressure and the risk of heart disease, stroke and chancer.
3. Saturated - Increase chance of certain cnacers and heart disease by raising the total and LDL cholesterol levels.
4. Transfat - does everything saturated fat does but also lowers HDL cholesterol
MOST COMMON FORM OF CANCER IN MEN?
MOST COMMON FORM OF CANCER IN WOMEN?
MOST DEADLY FORM OF CANCER IN MEN AND WOMEN?
Men = Prostate Cancer
Women = Breast Cancer
Deadly = Lung Cancer
WHAT IS FIBER?
An even more complex stran of carbohydrates, so complex that the body can't break it down.
What are fats made of?
Molecule of glycerol (an alcohol) with 3 fatty acid chains attached = triglyceride
Different fatty structures within a triglyceride result in the different types of fats.
What does your body want to do with fats?
- Body uses it for Energy -
- Most concentrated source at 9 cal/gram
- Used during rest and light activity
- Insulates body and support & cushion your organs
IS THERE A GOOD VS. BAD CHOICE OF FAT?
Good = Polyunsautrated (Omega 3 and Omega 6) and monounsaturated increase HDL Cholesterol.
Bad = Saturated & Transfat, they raise LDL Cholesterol (transfat lowers HDL as well)
HOW MUCH FAT SHOULD YOU HAVE?
Men - Linoleic Acid 17g Alpha Linolenic 1.6g
Women - Linoleic Acid 12g Alpha Linolenic 1.1g
- Total Fat 20-35% of total calories (9 cal/gram)
- Omega 6 5-10% of total fat
- Omega 3 .6-1.2% of total fat
WHAT ARE CARBOHYDRATES MADE OF?
carbohydrates are strands of suguar molecules
WHAT DOES YOUR BODY WANT TO DO WITH CARBOHYDRATES?
They are the primary preference to use as energy.
Some cells...the brain, nervous system, and blood.... only use carbohydraes for fuel.
IS THERE A GOOD CHOICE VS A BAD CHOICE OF CARBOHYDRATES?
complex carbohydrates have a better benifit than simple sugars.
because they take longer for the body to break down keeping you at your baseline rather than simple carbs which are broken down faster and can cause your sugar levels to go very high, insulin is released causing sugar level to go back down, often below baseline.
HOW MUCH CARBOHYDRATES SHOULD I HAVE?
45-65 % of total daily calories 4 cal/gram
Men and Women 130g
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE BODY DIGESTS CARBOHYDRATES?
Carbs are a strand of sugar molicules, during digestion the carbs are broken down into a single sugar molecule one at a time by enzymes and put into the blood stream increasing blood sugar
The liver and muscles take up glucose and store it in the form of glycogen.
TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES AN WHAT FOODS ARE THEY FOUND IN?
- Simple - (added sugar)
- Contain 1 or 2 sugar units
- Found naturally in frutis and milk
- Includes sucrose, fructose, maltose & lactose
- Complex -
- Contains many sugar molecules
- Found in plants, grains legumes & tubers
- Includes starches & most types of dietary fiber.
- Fiber -
- Most complex form of Carbohydrate
WHAT ARE THE THREE CLASSES OF ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS THAT SUPPLY ENERGY
Protein, Carbohydrates, and Fat
WHAT IS KILOCALORIE
A measure of energy content in food
WHAT ARE PROTEINS MADE OF?
20 types ofAmino acids that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
Out of these 20 common Amino acids in food....9 are essential.
WHAT DOES YOUR BODY USE PROTEIN FOR?
To build structures, or to repair old tissue but it has to have 9 essential amino acids to do so.
IS THERE A GOOD VS BAD CHOICE OF PROTEIN?
- Complete Proteins have all 9 Amino Acids -
- mostly animal based protein: meat, eggs, cheese
- Incomplete Proteins don't have all 9 Amino Acids -
- mostly plant based: nuts, legumes
WHAT IS ENDO SPEM MADE OF?
(or ... what type of carbohydrate)
WHAT IS THE GLYCEMIC INDEX?
measures carbohydrates by giving them a number that reflects how fast they digest.
WHY IS YOUR BASELINE IMPORTANT? (topic of carbohydrates)
The baseline of what your brain wants is importatnt because your brain and central nervous system only use sugar for energy.
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SATURATED AND UNSATURATED FAT?
- UNSATURATED: is liquid and won't clog your arteries
- Monounsaturated - one carbon-carbon double bond. Pimarily from...???
- Polyunsaturated - multiple carbon-carbon double bond. Pimarily from...???
- SATURATED:is solid at room temp
- Saturated : No carbon-carbon double bond. Primarily in animal foods and palm and coconut oil
- Transfat - hydrogentated oil; Oil is good fat - becomes bad by adding hydrogen
TOP 3 KILLERS IN THE US & THE
LIFE STYLES ASSOCIATED WITH THEM
- Heart Disease
- Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease (only smoking)
Diet, Inactivity, Smoking, Excessive Drinking
RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIO VASCULAR DISEASE THT YOU CAN CONTROL
- Sedentary Life Style
WHAT DOES SMOKING DO?
- ^ heart rate
- ^ blood pressure
- ^ LDL cholesterol
- Decreases HDL Cholesterol
- Decreases o2 in blood & clogs tissue
- Breaks down elastin faster
WHAT ARE C-REACTIVE PROTEINS AND WHAT IS THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO PREDICTION HEART ATTACKS?
c-reactive proteins are found in the blood, the levels will rise in response to inflammation
When CRP levels are above 3mg/liter of blood you are 70% more likely to have aheart attack
Increased risk of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease
WHAT ARE FAT SOLUBLE VS. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS?
- Solubility affects how it is absorbed, transported and stored.
- Water soluble is absorbed directly into the bloodstream, travels free and the excess is removed by the kidneys.
complex absorptive process - carried in blood by special proteins
and stored in the liver and fat tissue rather than excreted
WHAT IS METASTASIZE?
"The spread of cancerous cells"
Occurs because cancer cells don't stick to eachother as strongly as normal cells do, and therefore may not remain at the site of the primary tumor.
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