-Transcellular-fluids seperated from other fluids by a cellular barrier
Explain and name electrolytes
An electrolyte or compound, that when dissolved or dissociated in water or another solvent, seperates into ions that are electrically charged
Cations-sodium Na+, potassium K+, Calcium Ca+
Anions-chloride Cl-, Bicarbonate HCO3-, Sulfate
Differentiate between solvent and solute
Solvent-the solution in which a solute is dissolved (water)
Solute-electrolyte or item that is dissolved (glucose, proteins)
Explain osmosis and what the rate is dependent upon
Osmosis is movement of a solvent across a semipermeable membrane into a region of a higher concentration
Rate is dependent upon
1. concentration of the solutes in the solution
2. temperature of the solution
3. electrical charges of the solutes
4. differences b/t osmotic pressures exerted by the solutions
5. tonicity of solution
What is the difference between a hypertonic solution and a hypotonic solution?
Hypertonic-solution of higher osmotic pressure, pulls fluid from cells causing them to shrink
Hypotonic-solution of lower osmotic pressure, moves fluid into the cells causing them to enlarge
Explain Diffusion v. Filtration v. Active transport
Diffusion-solute moves across a semipermeable membrane from high concentration to low concentration
Filtration-movement of solvent and solute particles across a membrane, driver is pressure (high to low)
Active transport-transport of substances across cell membranes, allows cells to admit larger molecules that they would otherwise would not be able to admit, lesser concentration to higher concentration
What maintains homeostasis?
Thirst mechanism in the hypothalamus
Osmoreceptors monitor the serum osmotic pressure, when osmolality increases the hypothalamus is stimulated
What regulates hormones?
What regulates fluid output?
Kindeys-produce a minimum of 0.5 ml/kg/hr
Lungs-expire about 500 ml of water daily
What is chemical regulation?
The largest chemical buffer in the ECF is the carbonic acid and bicarb buffer system
First buffering system to react to change in pH of ECF and it reacts within seconds
What is biological regulation?
Occurs after chemical buffering
Buffering occurs when H+ ions are absorbed or released by cells
RBC's the prime cells
What is the physiological regulation?
Lungs regulate respiration speed to increase or decrease levels of CO2 in the blood-Response time is seconds to minutes
Kidneys increase of decrease levels of many different ions in blood through excretion or blocked filtration, kidneys reabsorb bicarb incases of acid excess and excrete it in cases of acid deficit-Response time is hours to days
Can occur with net sodium loss or net water excess
Caused by vomiting, diarrhea, NG suctioning, burns, excessive sweating