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What is the role of the respiration system?
To provide for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and the blood
Oxygen is required by all cells in order to produce the life-sustaining energy source ____________.
Adensosine triphosphate (ATP)
Carbon dioxide is produced by ______ ______ _______ and forms an acid that must be removed from the body.
Metabolically active cells
To carry out gas exchange, what two systems must work together?
Cardiovascular and Respiratory systems
What are the four major divisions of Pulmonary ventilation?
Pulmonary ventilation- Ventilation is
exchange of air between atmosphere and alveoli
Pulmonary Ventilation- Diffusion is
movement of O2 & CO2 between alveoli and blood
Pulmonary Ventilation- Transport is
O2 & CO2 from blood to and from cells
Pulmonary Ventilation- Regulation is
respiratory center- pons- medulla area of brain
Lung expansion and contraction is accomplished by (3)
- chest cage
- accessory muscles
Diaphragm function in lung expansion and contraction is
increases longitudinal length
Chest cage function in lung expansion and contraction is
elevates the rib cage- intercostal muscles
Accessory muscles function in lung expansion and contraction is
used during forceful inhalation and expration. (abdominal, sternoleidomastoid, etc.
- expansbility of the lungs and thorax.
- Of the whole area chest wall, diaphragm, muscles
Work of breathing- energy that is needed to:
- 1. expand respiratory muscles- compliance
- 2. overcome viscosity of pulmonary tissues- tissue resistance
- 3. over come airway resistance- airway resistance
How much total energy is required?
normally 2-3% of total energy expended. A lot of reserve in system, only 2% for lungs
- tidal volume
- inspiratory reserve
- expiratory reserve
- residual volume
~500 ml- sitting quietly
~3000 ml- if become vigorous, can bring in this much more. can lose- can train
~1100 ml- can push out
- Tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume
- (3500 ml)
- Expiraory reserve volume+ residual volume
- (2300 ml)
- Inspiratory reserve volume+ tidal volume+ expiratory reserve volume
- (4600 ml)
Total lung capacity=
- Maximum volume the lungs can be expanded with max inspiratory effort (5800 ml)
- estimated value- can't let all air out of lungs- lungs will collapse
All lung volumes and capacities are ~20-25% less in females.
volumes are also greater in athletic and large individuals than small and asthenic.
- Air that fills respiratory passages= ~150 ml. Increases slightly with age.
- Nose, pharynx, trachea- not useful for gas exchange
Alveolar ventilation/ minute=
- Resp rate x (tidal vol - dead space)
- = 12 x (500-150)
- = 4200 ml/min
What is the function of respiratory passage ways?
Air distributed to the lungs by way of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. Cartilage rings extend around the trachea to prevent collapse.
What are the two nervous control of bronchiolar musculature?
- Sympathetic dilatation
- Parasympathetic constriction
mostly due to circulation of norepinephrine and epinephrine released into the blood. (excerise)
- secrete acetylcholine- may be activated by nervous stimulation or by irritation of epithelial membrane of respratory passageways.
- Ex of irritation include:
- noxious gases
- cigarette smoke
Air conditioning by respiratory passageways include: (3)
Warming is ~ body temperature and accomplished by ________?
large surface area
Moistening is ________________?
Air is humidified to ~100% (1 cell thick make it fragile)
Filtering is _____________?
Hairs and turbulent recipitation traps foreign particles. Cilia- transport to the pharynx to be swallowed
What does the cough reflex do?
clears lower passageways of secretions and foreign particles
What does sneezing do?
clears nasal passageways of foreign materials. Upper airway
Vocalization includes: (3)
Phonation is achieved where?
Articulation is achieved where?
structures of the mouth- lips, tongue, & soft palate
Where is resonance achieved?
mouth, nose,and nasal sinuses, pharynx, and ches cavity
Pulmonary circulation- Pulmonary vessels- the quality of blood flowing through the lungs is essentiall equal to that flowing through the systemic circulation. However hemodynamics are quite different.
The pulmonary arterial branches are all very short and have larger diameters than their counterpart systemic arteries. This combined with the fact that the vessels are very thin and distensible, gives the pulmonary arterial tree a large compliance.
Blood flows to the lungs through several ________ ______.
Bronchal arteries (1-2% of cardiac output)
Bronchal blood is ______ in contrast to _______ blood in the pulmonary arteries.
Bronchial vessels supply the lung and its supporting tissues with _______ ____.
Blood gases, so they can make ADP and do work.
Lymph vessels extend from...
all the supportive tissue of the lung.
Lymph vessels are responsible for (2)
partly removing particulate matter entering the alveoli and removes plasma proteins from lung capillaries.
Why are lymphatics important?
for preventing edema. (pulmonary edema)
What is the systolic pressure in the right ventricle?
averages 25 mmHg
What is the diastolic pressure in the right ventricle?
averages 0-1 mmHg (1/5 those for the left ventricle
What s the mean pulmonary capillary pressure?
about 7 mmHg
Under various physiological and pathological conditions, the quantity of blood in the lungs can vary from _____ to ________.
1/2 to up to twice normal. Normal is about 450 ml or 9% of total blood volume.
The blood flow through the lungs is essentially equal to ________.
Pulmonary vessels act as passive, distensible tubes that enlarge with ______ pressure and _______ with decreasing pressure.
When the concentration of oxygen in alveoli decreases below normal, the adjacent blood vessels slowly ______, allowing redistribution of blood flow to ______ ______ ____ of the _____.
constrict, better ventilated area, lung
During heavy exercise, the blood flow through the lungs _________ _____ to ______.
increases fourfold to sevenfold.
During heavy exercise the increased blood flow is accommodated in the lung by: (2)
- Increasing the number of open caillaries
- Distending all the capillaries and increasing the rate of flow through each capillary.
- These changes allow pulmonary arterial pressure to rise very little even during maximum exercise.