RadPhysics Chapter 3 10/31 ksw

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RadTherapy
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180194
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RadPhysics Chapter 3 10/31 ksw
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2012-10-27 17:32:00
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radiation physics
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RadPhysics Test 3
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  1. The properties of electromagnetic energy include ______, _______, ___________, and ___________.
    frequency, wavelength, velocity, amplitude
  2. xrays, visible light, and radiofrequencies are examples of _________________.
    electromagnetic energy
  3. Ever present all around us is a field or state of energy called ______________________.
    electromagnetic energy
  4. Electromagnetic energy exists over a wide range called an energy ______________.
    continuum
  5. A__________is an uninteruppted or.dered sequence
    continuum
  6. A_______is the smallest quantity of any type of electromagnetic energy.
    photon
  7. An xray ________ is a quantum of __________  energy.
    photon, electromagnetic
  8. ______are energy disturbances that move through space at the speed of light(c).
    photons
  9. The speed of light =
    3x10 to the 8 power
  10. Visible light has both electric and _________ properties. hence the term ________.
    magnetic, electromagnetic
  11. Photons have no mass and therfor no identifiable form, they do have electric and magnetic fields that are continuosly changing in a _________ fashion.
    sinusoidal
  12. The velocity of electromagnetic radiation is ________.
    3 x10 to the 8thpower(the speed of light)
  13. ___________waves are variations in amplitude over time.
    Sine
  14. __________is one-half the range from crest to valley over which the sine wave varies.
    amplitude
  15. The important properties of the sine wave model of electromagnectic energy are ________ and ________.
    frequency(f)    and    wavelength(λ)
  16. ___________is the number of wavelengths that pass a point of observation per second,
    frequency(f)
  17. ____________is the distance from one crest to another, from one valley to another, or from one point on the sine wav to the next corresponding point.
    wavelength(λ)
  18. Is amplitude related to wavelength or frequency?
    no
  19. Three wave parameters are needed to describe electromagnetic energy:
    wavelength, frequency, velocity

    (amplitude not needed)
  20. The shorter the wavelength(λ) the ______the frequency(f).
    higher.
  21. The wave equation:
    Velocity=frequency x wavelength

    v=fλ
  22. At a given _______, wavelength and frequency are _______ _____________.
    velocity, inversely proportional
  23. As the frequency of electromagnetic energy increases the wavelength _______ and vice versa.
    shortens
  24. The known electromagnetic spectrum has three regions most important to radiologic science:______, _______, _______. Other portions  of the spetrum include ultraviolet light, infrared light, and microwave radiation.
    1)visible light 2)x and gamma radiation 3)radiofrequency
  25. Diagnostic ultrasound is NOT part of the _______ _________.
    electromagnetic spectrum
  26. The energy of a photon is directly proportional to its __________.
    frequency
  27. An ______ photon has considerably more energy than a visible light photon or a RF photon. The frequency of _______is much _______ and the wavelength is much _____ than other types of electromagnetic radiation.
    xray, x-radiation higher, shorter
  28. The only distinction between xrays and gamma rays is their _______.
    • origin
    • xrays are emitted from the electron cloud and gamma rays from inside the nucleus of a radioactive atom.
  29. Visible light is identified by ________, radiofrequency by ____________, and xrays are identified by _______.
    wavelength, frequency, energy
  30. A photon of x-radiation and a photon of visible light are fundamentally the same except that x-radiation has much higher ________, and hence a _______ wavelength than visible light.
    frequency, shorter
  31. Visible light photons tend to behave more like ______ than _______. The oppoite is true of xray photons,  which behave more like ______ than _______.
    waves, particles, particles, waves

    • Light(more wave-like)
    • X-rays(more particle -like)
  32. The phenomenon that photons have of behaving both like particles and waves is known as ________________________.
    wave-particle duality
  33. X-rays behave as though they are _________.
    particles
  34. Visible light behaves like a ____________.
    wave.
  35. Electromagnetic energy _________ is the reduction in intensity that results from scattering and absorption.
    attenuation
  36. Structures that absorb xrays are called _______.
    radiopaque  (like bone)   shows up on xray
  37. Structures that transmit xrays are called _________.
    radiolucent(soft tissue)     doesn't show up on xray_
  38. Electromagnetic energy intensity is ______ related  to the ______ of the distance from the source.  This is called the ________ _______ _________.
    inversely, square, inverse square law
  39. I1=I2(d2/d1)2
    Inverse square law
  40. If the distance from a source doubles then the intensity will be _________ the original amount
    1/4
  41. If the distance from a source is half as far then the intensity with _______ more.
    4 times
  42. The xray photon is a _______ bundle of _______.
    discrete, energy
  43. Xrays are created with the speed of light or they _________________.
    do not exist at all.
  44. Photon energy is ______ proportional to photon frequency.
    directly
  45. The constant of proportionality, known as ______ ____ is symbolized by h and has the numerical value of ______________.
    Planck's constant, 4.15 x 10 to the -13th power
  46. Planck's Quantum Equation:
    E=hf

    where E is the photon energy, h is Planck's constant, and f is the photon frequency in hertz
  47. The law of _______ states that matter can be neither created nor destroyed. The law _______states that energy can neither be created not destroyed.
    conservation of matter, conservation of energy

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