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- offers conditions for optimizing development and self actulatization
- freedom for self expression
- selt-determined behavior
Birth>>> age one
sensorimotor learning and caregiving bonding
- -fastest growing
- -ego centricism
- -moving towards object permanance
- -practice play
- -language development
- -autonomny vs. doubt
- -object permanance= peek aboo(your not actually gone just hands in front of face)
- - throws overhand
- -SWIM LESSONS
- ....drowning #1 cause of unintentional deaths
5-7 years old
- games with rules
- jump ropes
- cuts with precision
- social comparison affects participation
- activities away from home
- industry/competence vs. inferiority/self doubt
failure associated with incompetence and leads to quitting.
between 8-13. 72% of children stop sport participation
59% of kids worry about fitting in
- 6-8 being a good friend
- 12-14 wearing the right clothes
Hiearchy of Social Play
watching others from a distance
same or different activity, non sharing of objects
sharing objects but not engaged with each other
sharing towards the same goal
cooperating to win
barriers to beneficial play
- (3)overprotective adults
- (4)over/under stimulation
- (5)pressure to win
- (6)globalization of errors
- (7)poor organization- too structured.
- play vs. recration
Environments that promotes play
- -supportive and encouraging
- -reward effot
- -encouraage fun
- -connection beyond participation, books, clubs, spectator
- -balance of novel and stable stimuli
- -predictable and repetivie
- -invites engagement and exploration
- means GROWING UP
- -period of transition from childhood to adulthood
- -age 12-22
- - THE PERIOD OF IDENTITY FORMATION
- -peers are highly influential
- -integration into group
- -shared values, attire, and language.
DEVELOPING SELF CONCEPT
- -body image
- -being different from parents but not different from peers
- -steriotypical gender roles
Barriers to participation: Environmental
- -educational level of parents
- -peer pressure
Barriers to participation: behavioral
- -substance use
- -sexual activity
- -eating disorders
Principles to increase youth participation:opportunitiy too:
- -develop individual competence
- -develop bond with at least one adult
- -plan activities
- -solve problems
-provide adolescents social space
reason for :increase youth particiapation
- -peer interaction
- -test limits
balancing novel and stable activites
developing adult leisure
balance individuation and social resaonabilitiy
- -role determined leisure:
young adulthood normative standards
- -selecting a mate
- -learning to live with a partner
- -starting a family
- -starting an occupation
- -taking civic responsibility
- -finding a social group
- -making community connections
Parents perceive responsibility
- teach morals
- increase awareness of world
- health and fitness
leisure is most important force in family development
- family cohesion
- spousal relationships
- parent child relationship
Leisure can have negative outcomes on family
when the family smokes the whole time
- Adjusting to changing household makeup:
- (empty nest)(interaction with mate)
- achieving adult social responsiblity
- career achievement
- physiological changes
- aging parents
Who are older americans?
-heterogeneous population, not homogenour.
- -the older people get, the less alike they are
- diversity is an essential feature in considering a population of older adults
- -Chronological age tells little about health of function
- -Aging is a marker for diversity, not disease.
Generalized images of aging typically negative:
Typically missing from our images
- -physical and mental wellness
- invovlement with others
- independent living
- connection with the larger community
37% noninstitutionalized over 65% perceive health as excellent or very good
constant between sexts.
Sensory System Changes
Musculoskeletal system changes
- -decreased capactiy for cell growth
- -decreate in joint function, range of motion (ROM)
- -decrease in bone strength & mass begins 25.
- -decrease in muscle strength and mass from 30
USE IT Or LOSE IT
cardiovascular and respiratory system
- -declines in vital and reserve capacity of lungs
- -increased susceptibility to pulmonary distress
- -heart weakens
- -vessels narrow, thickens and are less pliable
Oldest old 85+
- fastest growing segment
- 50% cognitive impairment
- 18.2 live in institutions. make up 50% of nursing homes
- 1% of population
- 3% aby boomers expected to reach
- 30% no memory problems
typical aging processs
80% of older adults still perform activities of dialy living without assistance from others.
Influences on leisure participation
- -past experience -fear
- -sex -transportation
- -ethnicity -scheduling
- -social support -companionship
- -health -values
- -education -role loss
- -lack of knowledge of resources.opportunity
- -economic status
- -plan with not for older adults
- -dont assume age-sedentary activities
- -consider demographic trends
- working elderly
- increasing minorities
- baby boomers
- provide variety
- (l)Intervenebetween the desire to participate and behavior
- (2)person would like to dosomething but can’t for some reason like money, architecture, geographyl
- (3)Mechanical time
_things that get in the way like time, transportation, geographic, equipment
-lack of resources
- lFactors that affect a person’s
- preference for or interest in an activity
- lA personal condition that
- keeps a person from preferring an activity
lLack of exposure
lAttitudes about leisure/work
- WITHIN A PERSON
- -im to gat to go to a work out
- -gender- girl scouts- he feels wrong
- -hurt kneww-cant participate
- someone keeping you from doing it
- -mens club>> women cant participate
- -gender>told he cant join girl scouts
- intervene between a preference and behavior
- Leisure can
- be constrained pre-interest development or between interest and behavior
make peron with disabilities become more indepent.
cluster of people
-a significant custering of people who have a common bond.
- residents in a neighborhood
- empoyees of a company
- those who live and work on army base
taxes went up, justify the benefits
NRPA 4 benefits categories
nation recreation parks association
helped agencies focus less on the activites offered and more on the experiences that people have,
parks and recreation federation of ontario, canada and several cooperating canadian organization put the into for benefits also
Function 1 :enriching the quality of life
- -quantifiable items
- -providing pleasurable and constructive leisure opportunies,
- -provision of services to residents of all ages,backgrounds and classes.
- [rates on livablitity: safety,education, health care, and politcal and economic environments]
- -available social opportunites, cultural activies, special events, parks, trails, lakes, restaurants, streetscaping, and facilities.
- -swimming pools, community centers
Quality of life
- -nearby college,
- cultural and entertainment
Function 2:contributing to personal development
contribution to physical, social, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual development
promotion of family cohesion and well being.
contributing to personal development
- improving physical fitness or social adjustment,
- -positive self concepts
- -explore and confirm personal values
-GIRL SCOUTS OF AMERICA-grow up in a positive and healthy way.
Fuction 3 making the community a more attrractive place to live and visit
- improve phitical environment
- provide a network of parks and open spaces
- redesign and rehbilitate run down urban areas
- foster positive environmental attitudes and policies
community more attractive
local govts, the recreational fuction is closely linked to the management of parks.
recreation through cities waterfronts.
LEED- requires buildings to be constructed and operated according to the standars and environmentally sustainable.
function 4: provide positive opportunities for youth development
- provide challenging programs that offer constructive alternatives.
- programs should be goal oriented with youth development purposes
- ex.) risk youth.
4.) positive opportunites for youth
- prevent or redce juvenille delinquency..
- playgrounds, community centers.
children are lookgin for excitement and risk.
risk at youth
tendency to be viewed as only minority youth, innercity, and low-income.
is the effots made to "create organizations and communities that enable youth to move along the pathway to adulthood by supploying the support and opportunites necessary to develop beyong dimple problem prevention.
makes programs give purpose and goal in mind.
Model: Search Institutes 40 development assets for adolescents- healthy caring and responsible young adult.
young person spends 3 or more hours per week in lessons or practive music, theatre, or other arts
young person spends 3 or more hours per week in sports, clubs or organizations at school and/or in community organizations.
Time at home
young person is out with friends "with nothing special to do" two or fewer nights per week.
opportunites for youth development
after school proframs.
Function 5: improving intergroup and intergenerational relations
- improve relations among racial, ethnic, and religious backgrounds.
- -improve relations between different generational groups
- -share recreational and cultural experiences.
5.) improving intergroup and intergenerational relations.
invite, include and involve.
intergroup hositility= meetings, staff training programs, workshops.
Function 6: Strengthening neighborhood and community ties
- involve in volunteer or service programs
- enhancement of civic pride and morale
- social and human capital
function 7:meeting the needs of special populations
- serving those with mental or physical disabilities.
- provide therapeutic recreation services through treatement and or community programs.
-ex.) therapy recreation,american disability act, IRAQ
is the tool and training that can enhance an individual or collective productivity.
-ex.) when people give their time and talen to the work force or the community
is defined as "connections among individuals" social networks and the notms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them.
schools, employment, and neighborhoods.
fuction 8.) maintaining economic health and community stability
- acting as a catalyst for business development
- source of community or regional income and employment
- keeping neighborhoods a desirable place to live and do business
- centers of entertainment.
- economic input= the measure of the amount of new dollars infused into the community by the agency
direct vs. indiract..
direct- economic impact- is the amount of money that is directly generated by the event such as staff salaries concessions progra feews, construction cost and operating expenditures.
indirect- money spent that results from the program or the event
function 9: emriching community cultural life
- promote fine and performing arts and special events.
- supporting historic sites folk heritage customs and community arts.
art does not only benefit the rich.
art directly relates to the social needs.
function 10: to promote community health and safety
- -promote community and safety
- -provide leadership training and certification courses.
- -provide supervision or regulation of high-risk activity
fuction 10 promote community health and safety
classes like boaters safety, swim lessons, hunter safety.
Constructive and enjoyable leisure for people of all ages and backgrounds contributes significantly to their quality of life and satisfaction with their communities
fuction 1: quality of life
organized recreation promotes healthy personal development in physical emotion social intellectual and spiritual terms thus contributing to overall community well-being
function 2:personal development
recreation and park agencies maintain parks, nature reserves, riverfronts, and other natural areas and may assist in rehabilitating or sponsoring history and cultural settings.
function 3: environment attractiveness
as an important element in the communitys educational, social, and other services for youth, organized recreation assist in preventing or reducing delinquency and other deviant forms of play and giving youth positive alternatives to develop into health adults
function 4: positive opportunites for youth development
recreation serves as a useful tool in promoting ethnic, racial, and intergroup understanding and cooperation
function 5: improving intergroup and intergenerational relations
volunteerism and taking part in neighborhood effots to imporce the community environment and similar involvement help to build civic togetherness
function 6: strengthening community ties.
in both treatment settings in the community at large, therapeutic recreation service promotes inclusion and independence for persons with phycial mental or social disabilites.
function 7: needs of special population
as a growing form of business enterprise, recreation employs millions of people today. by helping to attract tourism, industries that are relocating or new residents it also provides income and promotes community stability.
function 8:maintaining economic health
many public and nonprofit leisure-service agencies today assist or sponsor programming in the various artistic and cultural firlds, strengthening this important dimension of community life.
function 9: enriching cultural life
increasingly, recreation is recognized as a health-related discipline by helping individuals to maintain sound lifestyles and by helping to promote safety in outdoor recreation and other risk-related leisure pursuits.
function 10: promoting health and safety.
Characteristics of of public or government leisure services
- (1) furst type of agency to be formally recognized as responsible for serving the publics rec needs, constitutes the core of recreation movement(2)the primary means of support for most government recreation and park agencies traditionally has been tax funded, now other revenues are enforced
- (3) govt agencies have major responsibilities for the management of natural resources
- (4) they are obligated to serve the public at large with socially useful or constructive programs because of their tax-supported status.
- (2)financial support through taxes
- (3) natural resources
- (4)socially useful and constructive programs
Role of federal government
- (1)direct mgt of outdoor recreation resources
- (2)conservation and resource reclamation
- (3)assistance to open space and park development programs
- (4)direct programs of recreation participation
- (5)advisory and financial assistance
role of fed govt. (1)direct mgt of outdoor rec
National park service, national forest service, burea of land management, owns and operated a vast network of parks, lakes, and other facilities used extensively for outdoor recreation
role of fed (2) conservation and resource reclamation
closetly relating to the preceding function is the govts role in reclaiming natural resources that have been destroyed, damaged or threatened and in promotoing programs related to conseration, wildlife, and antipollution control.
role of fed govt (3) assistance to open space and park development programs
chiefly with funding authorized under the 1965 land and water fund conservation act, the federal govt has provided billions of dollars in matching grants to states and localities to promote open-space development. also through direct aid to municipalities carrying out housing and urban development projects, the federal governments subsidized the development of local parks, playgrounds and centers.
direct programs of recreation:roles of fed govt (4)
the federal governments operates a number of direct programs of recreation service in Veterans Administration hospitals and other federal instituions and in the armed forces on permanent and temporary bases throughout the world.
advisory and financial assistance
the gederal govt provides varied forms of assistance to states, localities and other public or voluntary community agencies. community proframs serving economically and socially disadvantaged populations have been assisted by the Department of health and human services housing and urban development labor and others.
promotion of recreation as an economic funtion
the federal govt has been active in promoting tourism, providing aid to rural residents in developing recreation enterprises, and assisting native american tribes in establish recreational. bureau of the censes and the coast guard also provide needed information for those interest in trabel and boating past times.
Research and technical assistance
fed govt. outdoor recreation to needs of current status of urban recreation
regulation and standards
fed govt. has developed regulatory policies with respect to pollution control, watershed production and environmental quality.
Role of fed govt
- (1)aid to professional education
- (2)promotion of recreation as an economic function-tourism
- (3)research and technical assistance
- (4) regulation and standards= safety envinoment protection, architect.
National Park Service
- since 1916.
- -primary preservation agency
- -beginning with yellowstone in 1872
- -growing 79 million acres plus
- -more than 385 areas
- -the challenge is to balance preservation, public use, and political mandates.
- -national parks, trails
US forest service
- primary conservation agency.
- largest "recreation" and "wilderness" system steward.
mining, grazing, lumbering, recreation and hunting are all permitted in the national forest.
threats:fire, invasive species, loss of open space,,unmanged recreation.
Bureau of Land Managemtn
- -primarily a wested based land manager.
- -mutliple-use agency
- -recreation is a major responsiblity.
- -national wilderness areas and other types of recreation areas
- --such as nevadas red rock national conservation area.
Bureau of land management
- *27 million land
- -they have rivers because they run through the land.
(monument, wilderness, wild and scenic river, trails.
yeild $800 milliion dollars that is returned to state and local govts.
Bureau of Reclamation
-irrigation and electric power
- water resource development
- western Us
- Multi-use agency
- Recreation use an important component
- fish and wildlife service, nureau of reclamationYCC. youth conservation corps, which has habilitated or built campgrounds and boating facilities at recreation areas through out the west.
US Army corps of engineers
- Primarily responsibilities focuses on improvement and maintenance of rivers and other waterways for
- ....navigation and flood control.
- Manages most facilities, with some under lease to state and local govt.
- -Damns and Canyon Lake
Health and Human Services
- Federal Agency
- Senior Training
- -administation on aging
- -childrens burea
- -Public health service
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
- urban renewal programs
- planning and public housing.
- -taking an area and putting
- meeting social neets
- putting parks up.
National endowment for the arts
- fed gives greatns to the arts
- -strong support for the local arts.
- -$155 million budget
- State parks most recognizable
- -over 730 million visitors
- largest outdoor recreation visitation source
- administer multiple areas
- parks, rec areas, natural areas, historical areas, trails.
- addressing environmental issues, urban planning, recreation resource development
- art council
- state fairs
- therapeutic recreation services.
- -promotion of professional advancement
- - standards development and administration
county and local governments
primary responsiblity is for the day to day activites of meeting leisure needs of community.
- organiations occure in many forms.
- -county parks
- -park districts
- -municipal parks and recreation departments
is closest to the people.
anything not vested in the fed belongs to the state.
- police departments
- welfare departments
- youth boards
- health and hospital agencies.
- public housing departments
- cultural departments
- -school systems and local community colleges
- the is no single type of organzational structure
- some agencies only do recreation
- some do parks and recreation
- some may have libraries sports arenas convention centers, auditoriums
games sports, aquatics, arts and crafts, special services. social programs, hobby groups.
Austin nature center.
- sponsorship of large scale special events
- holiday celebrating
- art and hobby shows
- sports tournmants
types of programs:fitness
- frequent programming for fitness and sport
- often partner with other organizations
- in the forefront of health life-style movement
human service functions
- may include counseling for youth and family
- tutoring workshops-after school programs
- substance abuse programs
- Government support has fallen behind the demand for recreation.
- charging fees has become an accepted method of icnreasing budget.
- fee collection may endanger participation by disadvntages.
- -scholarships programs common to assist in ensuring all can participate.
Innovation in Major Cities
- major cities have become creative in their provision of services
- chicago created millinium park as a joint public and private venture
- new york city partners with hundred of organizations to extend public park and recreation areas and programs.
morale welfare and recreation
high energy place
Better opportunity single soldier