exam 4 biology

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emiles4311
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exam 4 biology
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2012-10-28 23:41:48
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biology exam 4
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  1. ________ or __________ releases
    small quantities of energy without O2.
    Fermentation or anaerobic releasessmall quantities of energy without O2.
  2. ____________ releases more energy and requires O2.
    Aerobic respiration releases more energy and requires O2.
  3. All energy-releasing pathways begin with _________.
    All energy-releasing pathways begin with glycolysis.
  4. (Aerobic Respiration) Glycolysis starts in the ________ and completed in the __________.
    (Aerobic Respiration) Glycolysis starts in the cytoplasm and completed in the mitochondrion.
  5. (Anaerobic Energy) Glycolysis starts in cytoplasm and completed in ___________.
    (Anaerobic Energy) Glycolysis starts in cytoplasm and completed in cytoplasm.
  6. ___________are storage and transportable forms of organic energy
    ______is a readily usable form of organic energy
    Carbohydrates are storage and transportable forms of organic energy

    ATP is a readily usable form of organic energy
  7. (Aerobic Respiration Stages)
    There are three stages and each harvest some of the energy from the original glucose
    • 1.Glycolysis
    • 2. Acetyl CoA formation and Kreb’s cycle
    • 3.Electron Transfer Chain 
  8. Glycolysis – first stage occurs in cytoplasm of the cell and gives a net gain of _______________
    Glycolysis – first stage occurs in cytoplasm of the cell and gives a net gain of 2 ATP (and 2 NADH)
  9. Acetyl CoA formation and Kreb’s cycle- occurs inmitochondrial inner compartment and produces _________________
    • Acetyl CoA formation and Kreb’s cycle- occurs in
    • mitochondrial inner compartment and produces 2 ATP (plus 8 NADH and 2 FADH2)
  10. Electron Transfer Chain – occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria and produces _____ from theenergy stored in the _______and _______
    • Electron Transfer Chain – occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria and produces 32 ATP from the
    • energy stored in the NADH and FADH2
  11. Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm. Reactions are ____________ by enzymes. Glucose (six carbons) are split into _________(______)
    Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm. Reactions are catalyzed by enzymes. Glucose (six carbons) are split into 2 Pyruvate (three carbon)
  12. Main Pathways Start with Glycolysis
    • 1. aerobic respiration
    • 2. alcoholic fermention
    • 3. lactate fermentation
  13. Energy-requiring steps
    _____ energy energizes glucose
    Energy-releasing steps 
    Energized molecule is split into __________molecules ___ and______ form
    • Energy-requiring steps 
    • ATP energy energizes glucose
    • Energy-releasing step
    • Energized molecule is split into three-carbon pyruvate molecules ATP and NADH form
  14. Glycolysis: Energy-Requiring Steps

    ________ molecules each transfer Pi to glucose

    These_________ raise the energy of ___________enough to overcome the ___________ barrier.
    Two ATP molecules each transfer Pi to glucose

    These phosphorylations raise the energy of glucose enough to overcome the activation energy barrier.
  15. Glycolysis: Energy-Releasing Steps

    Energy in ______is harvested and transferred to _______and ____

    Total of________form by ___________________
    Energy in PGAL is harvested and transferred to NADH and ATP

    • Total of four ATP form by substrate-level phosphorylation
  16. Glycolysis:  Net Energy Yield

    ______ and______ are formed during glycolysis

    When we subtract the ________ required to start the reactions, the net energy yield of glycolysis is ______ 
    Two NADH and four ATP are formed during glycolysis 

    When we subtract the two ATP required to start the reactions, the net energy yield of glycolysis is two ATP  
  17. Two Parts of Second Stage 
    l. Preparatory reactions 
     Pyruvate is ______into two-carbon acetyl units and carbon dioxide
    NAD+ is reduced into ______(energy is captured)

    2. Krebs cycle
    The acetyl units are oxidized to ________
    lNAD+ and FAD are ________(energy captured)
    • Two Parts of Second Stage 
    • l. Preparatory reactions  
    • Pyruvate is oxidized into two-carbon acetyl units and carbon dioxide
    • NAD+ is reduced into NADH (energy is captured)
    • 2..Krebs cycle
    • The acetyl units are oxidized to carbon dioxidelNAD+ and FAD are reduced (energy captured)
  18. Preparatory Reactions 
    The two pyruvate molecules from glycolysis enter a __________.
    An enzyme removes a ___________ from each pyruvate
    The remaining 2-carbon fragment combines with ___________ to form __________.
    • The two pyruvate molecules from glycolysis enter a mitochondrion
    • An enzyme removes a carbon atom from each pyruvate The remaining 2-carbon fragment combines with coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA
  19. Results of the Second Stage

    All of the carbon molecules in pyruvate end up in ___________
    Coenzymes are _______(they pick up electrons and hydrogen)
    ___ is formed
    ____________________ is regenerated
    • All of the carbon molecules in pyruvate end up in carbon
    • dioxide
    • Coenzymes are reduced (they pick up electrons and hydrogen)
    • ___ is formed
    •  __________________ is regenerated

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