Baroque and Romantic Art (part 1)

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    • Sta. Susanna
    • Artist: Moderno
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Location: Rome
    • Techniques:
    • similar to Il Gesu
    • greater focus on verticality
    • more dramatic features
    • double register
    • double columns - Il Gesu had double pilasters
    • tall center section projects out
    • no arch framing pediment, instead, tympanum over door and then a pediment over the bottom register's entablature that projects into the second register
    • strong cast shadows across surface from pilasters that create drama
    • too many columns to pilasters
    • surface articulation - in bottom register, pilasters on the edges then columns, and then double column framing the door - creates drama and rapidly moves the viewer's eyes to the center
    • sculptural effect of the building (from High Renaissance) enhanced by recessed niches that contain statues
    • scroll buttresses connect registers but they are at a sharper angle here than in Il Gesu
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    • Facade of St. Peter's
    • Artist: Moderno
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Location: Vatican
    • Techniques:
    • commissioned by Pope Paul V
    • added 3 bays to the nave and facade
    • thought it was too pagan by being central plan, so he extended nave to make it basillica style
    • pulls facade far from the central dome
    • dome looses affect of being dominated by the dome - now it is dwarfed by front facade and length of the nave
    • largest basilica in the world
    • reinforces distinction between laity and clergy
    • 2 side towers not part of original plan
    • pilaster, double column, column to break flow
    • tiny cap added in and thrown on
    • end sections (bell towers with barrel vaults) - beginning of baroque pavilion system
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    • Piazza of St. Peter's
    • Artist: Bernini
    • Era: Italian Baroque:
    • Location: Vatican, Rome
    • Techniques:
    • plaza - entire entrance way to St. Peter’s Basillica
    • obelisk- given to area from Romans from Egypt
    • created design in pavement for geometry to blend it all together
    • Egyptian obelisk from Romans shows Christian triumph in Rome
    • one fountain designed by Moderno
    • longitudinal axis continues from church itself- ending in oval shape that is perpendicular to long axis
    • plaza embraced by colonnades that join the facade creating 2 wings off of front facade
    • 4 rows of huge Tuscan columns that make up the colonnades around the outside
    • colonnades end in severely classical temple front facades
    • colonnades resemble arms that embrace the obelisk and fountains
    • design meant to embrace all of Christianity but also curves in to shut out lowly people who aren't worthy of the church
    • provided pilgrims easy entrance to the church
    • saints on top of all of the colonnades
    • Baroque design- facade, nave, and piazza- help to create the church that connects to its environment
    • trapezoidal space and oval- reminiscent of Campidoglio
    • reversed effect of Campidoglio- brings facade closer to observer and heightens the building
    • compensated for excessive width of the building to focus on height of the building - optical illusion (Baroque illusionism)
    • desire of Catholic church to create awe-inspiring and authoritative vision of itself
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    • Baldacchino
    • Artist: Bernini
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Location: St. Peter's, Vatican
    • Techniques:
    • made entirely of gilded bronze
    • from "baldacco" - Italian word for silk from Baghdad
    • looks like cloth on a canopy
    • functional and symbolic
    • sight of the crypt of St. Peter
    • stairs to go down to the crypt
    • entire baldacchino is in harmony with church - bridges the gap between human scale, lofty vaults, and dome above - harmony of proportions
    • frames Cathedral Petri
    • decorative elements that symbolize power of Catholic church and Pope Urban VIII
    • 4 unique, Solomonic columns (twisted and gilded with gold leaf)
    • columns slightly fluted and have twisting vine wreaths denies the weight and mass of tons of bronze
    • bronze stripped away from portico of the Pantheon - dominates Christianity over Rome
    • resembles baldacchino of old St. Peter's to reinforce primacy of the church
    • Baroque energy brought to old Greek column - seems like it's constantly moving upwards - sent from base of the columns to above columns - 4 colossal angels on top
    • from those angels are 4 serpentine brackets that move up to elevate an orb with the cross on top - symbol of Christian dominance over the world in the days of Constantine
    • lost wax process used to cast 5 pieces put together for columns
    • bees in panels and in vines of columns - symbol of the Barborini papal family
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    • Cathedra Petri
    • Artist: Bernini
    • Era: Italian Renaissance
    • Location: Vatican, Rome
    • Techniques:
    • gilded bronze, stucco, and marble
    • giant star burst that emits light from dove in window that represents the holy spirit
    • high relief figures surrounding dove
    • natural light from stained glass accentuated by bronze - illuminates sky and dematerializes wall behind it
    • cloud burst above grouping - papal throne surrounded by cloud bursts and angels - held up by serpentine brackets
    • 4 gigantic figures look like they’re carrying throne
    • 4 figures - 2 saints to represent Latin church - 2 others represent eastern - unity and sub serviance - unity of 4 corners of the world and subserviants from eastern church to western church
    • 2 charabs above the throne - holding up papal crown - as if they are crowning the victor - giving papal crown to church itself to assert triumph of Christianity and world supremacy
    • not literally throne that human sits in figures are larger than life
    • no clear lines of structure - but by forces that unfold from central violent energy energy and drama everything moves, nothing is distinct
    • light dissolves massvisionary effect
    • everything emerges from one point
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    • David
    • Artist: Bernini
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Techniques:
    • marble sculpture
    • older David, beard and mustache
    • in the action of using the sling
    • twist around the body as the body twists around
    • muscular legs that are widely and firmly planted that begin a pivoting motion- most dramatic position out of a sequence of poses
    • bursting energy from a central point
    • sculpture takes part in the physical space around it and with viewer
    • expression of intense concentration
    • deeply set eyes under heavy brow line
    • tosselled hair
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    • Ecstasy of St. Theresa
    • Artist: Bernini
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Location: Cornaro Chapel, Sta. Maria Della Vittoria, Rome
    • Techniques:
    • combination of architecture, marble, stained glass, gilded bronze, and stucco
    • St Theresa was a nun of the Carmelite order and a mystic during the Spanish Counter-Reformation
    • she had lots of visions
    • she entered into trances, heard voices, and felt pain
    • experienced pain and ecstasy
    • persistent pain because the angel is thrusting repeatedly into her heart the fire tipped arrow of divine love from god
    • swoons in delightful anguish
    • extremely sexual
    • Bernini's interpretation of her expression
    • sprawled across cliff
    • angel has malicious grin
    • placing her in a theater-like box
    • multicolored niche
    • surrounded by double columns
    • broken pediment and rounded stage adds drama
    • perspective given to focus on event
    • deeply undercut folds creates high play of light and shadow which therefore creates more drama
    • gilded bronze rays
    • stained glass window with natural lighting
    • sky with holy spirit accentuated by paint and stucco
    • side panels
    •    - carved in marble relief are members of the Cornaro family discussing this event in dramatic fashion
    •    - high relief done in strong perspective
    •    - background is low relief
    •    - barrel vaulted coffered ceilings
    • mix of spiritual and physical passion
    • difference in textures from clouds to cloak go flesh to wings
    • visual illusion of theatricality and sensitivity for achieving the Counter-Reformation's goals
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    • San Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane
    • Artist: Borromini
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Location: Rome
    • Techniques:
    • losing power of eminent domain - utilized every aspect of land they could get
    • innovation of highly undulating surface area
    • rounding out walls with concave and convex surfaces
    • sculptural effect of a building
    • contours give the building an elastic quality
    • architectural innovation
    • combination of central and basilica plan gives fluidity of surface area, Greek cross hybrid
    • oval creates a long axis between entrance and apse
    • side walls are moving in a undulating flow in reverse motion of the facade
    • secondary facade has a narrow bay with tiny a bell tower
    • corner faces and intersection
    • double register facade
    • undulating surface area separated by double columns
    • doors and window mimicked from top to bottom registers
    • columns are rapid projections out of the walls
    • projection out of concave surface
    • coffered oval dome
    • windows hidden in its base
    • unimpeded by segments and bays and aisles
    • oval mosaic on the floor that mimics the rest of the structure
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    • Chapel of St. Ivo
    • Artist: Borromini
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Location: College of Sapienza, Rome
    • Techniques:
    • inside college of wisdom
    • concave facade
    • convex and concave forms that project on the lower and upper levels
    • powerful pilasters on drum that are used to restrain the forces of the dome - seem to be pushing the dome back in
    • buttresses just above pilasters that curve upwards to brace the lantern that spirals into the sky
    • no straight lines
    • contoured edges
    • star with rounded points
    • rounded apses
    • interior in flower shaped, organic
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    • Conversion of St. Paul
    • Artist: Caravaggio
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Techniques:
    • light source is above picture frame
    • light comes down from heaven and makes him fall off of his horse
    • arms outstretched as an allusion to the crucifixion
    • seems like a stable accident
    • horse fills the picture frame, horse's butt
    • supernatural lighting - a beam of light that shoots across the darkness of the image
    • light falls centrally on st paul and the horse
    • perspective and chiaroscuro bring viewer closer to the scene
    • originally placed on a chapel wall at eye level
    • optical experience used to stage a visionary one
    • meant to seem commonplace at first glance
    • attaining sainthood could happen to anyone
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    • Calling of St. Mathew
    • Artist: Caravaggio
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Techniques:
    • oil on canvas
    • tenebrism lighting in a diagonal
    • set in a tavern
    • light source is a another window outside the picture frame
    • every figure was modeled after a criminal
    • almost can not see Christ
    • light hits Christ's halo
    • arm position is similiar to Creation of Adam by Michelangelo - influence of Michelangelo and alludes to the idea that Christ is the second Adam
    • St. Mathew's face is highlighted by the light
    • no halo on St. Mathew
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    • Death of the Virgin
    • Artist: Caravaggio
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Techniques:
    • oil on canvas
    • originally intended as an altarpiece
    • awkward stiffness of virgin, unceremonious
    • her body is swollen and her limbs are uncomposed and feet are bare (sacreligious)
    • prostitute posed for Mary
    • looked at a local dead woman that had drowned
    • heads are well illuminated
    • Renaissance device of curtain pushes figure to foreground and creates a stage-like setting
    • viewer is part of the ceremony
    • harsh light with tenebrism
    • differentiates between textures of fabrics
    • focussed on piety
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    • Entombment 
    • Artist: Caravaggio
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Techniques:
    • plebian figure types
    • all of the action is in the foreground
    • figures are positioned on a stome slab that corner faces the viewer
    • planned to have been placed behind an altar so that it looks as though they a going to place his body on the altar
    • gives a visual form to the Doctorine of Transsunstantiation
    • based on setting
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    • Judith Slaying Holofernes
    • Artist: Gentileschi
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Techniques:
    • tenebrism - lighting highlights main action and projects it into the foreground - heightens the drama
    • story from the Old Testament
    • Judith seduces Holofernes and then kills him
    • blood poors down soft white sheets - provides contrast
    • it does take two women to kill him
    • strain is realistic
    • verticality places focus on tension - sword accented with his arm, the maidservant's arm, and his other arm
    • Judith is off-center with diagonal arms to help accentuate the drama of the vertical
    • line and lighting*
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    • Judith and the Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes
    • Artist: Gentileschi
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Techniques:
    • look up as if they here a noise
    • lighting is inside picture frame with candle - tenebrism
    • heavy curtain, Renaissance, more oppressive space - alludes to the oppression of the people
    • hand interrupts the lighting - creates drama
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    • Flight into Egypt
    • Arist: Carracci
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Techniques:
    • ideal Classical landscape
    • nature that is ordered by divine law and human reason
    • influence of Venetian Renaissance paintings
    • tranquil hills and fields, quiet gliding streams, serene skies, unruffled foliage, and shepards with flocks of sheep - props of a pastoral scene, things required to create this mood
    • screen of trees in the foreground - dark against the even lighting of the sky
    • terraces of land create a zig zag through the terrain and lead the viewer's eye to the middleground
    • depicted architecture like Renaissance
    • Mary and Joseph are small in the foreground to make them props in the landscape
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    • Aurora
    • Artist: Guido Reni
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Techniques:
    • quadro riportato style
    • Aurora is the goddess of dawn who leads Apollo's chariot
    • dawn is breaking in the piece while the allegory of the hours are dancing around Apollo
    • uses body proportions of Raphael but are more graceful
    • more sucessful in articulating the female figure
    • females have soft modelling
    • inspired by Classical Antiquity
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    • Triumph of the Barberini
    • Artist: Pietro da Cortona
    • Era: Italian Baroque
    • Techniques:
    • ceiling fresco
    • commissioned by Pope Urban VIII (of the Barberini papal line)
    • overwhelm the spectators with the glory of the Barberini popes
    • flat ceiling
    • allegories
    •    -Divine Providence in a halo of radiant light directing Immortality who is holding a crown of stars - she is bestowing eternal life on the Barberini family
    •    - laurel wreath is their eternal legacy floating around Barberini v's
    •    - virtues of Faith, Hope, and Charity support the wreath and their legacy
    • papal tiara and two keys that announce the personal triumphs
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Baroque and Romantic Art (part 1)
2012-11-05 05:42:46

Italian Baroque
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