Anatomy Exam 2 Review.txt
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Anatomy Exam 2 Review.txt
need to know for exam 2
keratin intermediate filaments that make up tonofibrils
found in stratum spinosum
found in the stratum spinosum.
These cells act as macrophages and engulf and digest pathogens.
found in the stratum granulosum. Contain glycolipids
which make the epidermis water-proof.
found in the stratum granulosum.
contain the tough, insoluble protein, keratin, which makes the epidermis tough and abrasive-resistant.
the structural units of chromatin, packages chromatin
What is a nucleotide made up of?
· A pentose sugar (deoxyribose or
· A nitrogen-containing base – A, G, C, T, or U
· A phosphate group
the other DNA strand not used in transcription.
simple squamous epithelium
lines blood vessels, circulatory system
Main purpose is to create a lubricating fluid that is released between layers.
not found in humans, secretory product
accumulates on the apical side of the cell’s cytoplasm.
That part of the cytoplasm then pinches off, releasing the product into the lumen of the gland.
cell secretes products via exocytosis
eccrine sweat glands (regular sweat)
apocrine sweat glands (yellowish, puberty)
The cell accumulates secretory product within
The cell then dies and its products are released into the lumen.
A new layer of cells are ready to take its place.
sebaceous oil glands
touch receptors found in the papillary layer
increase friction and gripping power
we leave behind fingerprints because a film of sweat is left behind by the ridges.
What tissue is the reticular layer made of?
What is housed here?
dense irregular connective tissue
touch receptors for deep pressure (Pacinian corpuscles)
found at the junction of the epidermis and dermis.
acts as light touch receptors
What are functions of the skin?
protection from infection
protection from UV radiation (melanocytes)
metabolism (synthesis of vitamin D)
receives stimuli from the environment
deep pressure receptors
found in reticular layer
6 functions of epithelium
finder hair of children and adult females
the coarser, longer hair of the eyebrows, armpits, and pubic region.
Sections of Hair
In the middle is the medulla, which has large cells and air spaces. Only part of the hair that has soft keratin.
Outside that is the cortex, which has several layers of flattened cells.
The outermost cuticle is formed from a single layer of cells that overlap one another like shingles on a roof.
Hair conditioners smooth out the rough surface of the cuticle.
The cuticle tends to wear away at
the tip of the hair shaft, allowing the fibrils in the cortex and medulla to frizz out, resulting in split ends.
First Degree Burn
only the epidermis is affected
heals in 2-3 days
Second Degree Burns
injures the epidermis and the upper region of the dermis.
will see blisters.
will heal in 3-4 weeks if infection is prevented.
Third Degree Burn
All layers of the skin are affected.
The burned spot will not be painful.
Skin grafting is necessary.
Most dangerous because of the patient’s aversion to infection and fluid loss.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
occurs in the stratum basale
most common type of skin cancer and least dangerous
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
involves keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum.
grows rapidly, second most common type
proliferation of the melanocytes
most malignant, highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy
What is compact bone composed of?
shaped like a sesame seed
a short bone that is formed in a tendon
the shaft (middle) of the long bone.
Made of a thick collar of compact bone that surrounds a medullary cavity.
ends of the long bones
have spongy bone inside
covers the entire bone
outer layer is the fibrous layer (dense irregular CT)
inner layer is osteogenic layer, has osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteogenic cells.
the inner membrane separating the compact bone from the spongy bone.
Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
tiny canals that connect the lacunae to each other and to the central canal.
Allows for transfer of substances from one osteocyte to the next (via gap junctions).
the concentric tubes in the osteon
forms the skull bones and the clavicles
forms all the bones in the body except the clavicles and skull bones
starts out as hyaline cartilage.
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
released under hypocalcemic conditions
calcium in blood is too low
stimulates the osteoclasts to release calcium from the bones
Longitudinal Bone Growth
- 4 processes
1. Growth zone - chondroblasts create hyaline cartilage
2. Hypertrophic zone - old chondrocytes start to deteriorate
3. Calcification zone - calcium phosphate salts move towards the epiphyseal plate and chondrocytes will die
4. Ossification zone - osteoblasts move into the deteriorating hyaline cartilage stalactites. secrete new bone tissue on the diaphyseal face of the epiphyseal plate.
Function of bone remodeling
maintains levels of calcium homeostasis
released under hypercalcemic conditions
levels of calcium in blood are too high
stimulates osteoblasts to produce bone tissue
slightly moveable joints
freely moveable joints
Fibrous Joints (3)
sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses
elongated bursae that wrap around tendons to reduce friction.
Present in joints that are used very often.
flattened fibrous bags of synovial fluid associated with synovial joint.
Also reduces friction.
discs of fibrocartilage that improve the fit at a synovial joint. Reduces friction as the joint moves.
movement along one or two planes
vertebrae between C1 and C2.
lets you rotate on a plane
allows us to motion yes.
example is wrist joint.
only saddle joint in body is the metacarpal joint of thumb.
What are the characteristics of a synovial joint?
A synovial joint has a two-layered
, which has a
on the outer membrane and the
Inside the articular capsule is the
, which contains synovial fluid.