Anatomy Exam 2 Review.txt

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Anatomy Exam 2 Review.txt
2012-10-29 22:42:06

need to know for exam 2
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  1. Tonofilaments
    • keratin intermediate filaments that make up tonofibrils 
    • found in stratum spinosum
  2. Langerhan’s cells
    • found in the stratum spinosum. 
    • These cells act as macrophages and engulf and digest pathogens.
  3. lamellated granules
    • found in the stratum granulosum. Contain glycolipids
    • which make the epidermis water-proof. 
  4. keratohyaline granules
    • found in the stratum granulosum.
    • contain the tough, insoluble protein, keratin, which makes the epidermis tough and abrasive-resistant.
  5. nucleosome
    the structural units of chromatin, packages chromatin
  6. What is a nucleotide made up of?
    • ·      A pentose sugar (deoxyribose or
    • ribose).

    ·      A nitrogen-containing base – A, G, C, T, or U

    ·      A phosphate group
  7. Coding Strand
    the other DNA strand not used in transcription. 
  8. Endothelium
    • simple squamous epithelium
    • lines blood vessels, circulatory system
  9. Mesothelium
    • serous membrane
    • Main purpose is to create a lubricating fluid that is released between layers.
  10. Apocrine Secretion
    • not found in humans, secretory product
    • accumulates on the apical side of the cell’s cytoplasm.
    • That part of the cytoplasm then pinches off, releasing the product into the lumen of the gland.
  11. Merocrine Secretion
    • cell secretes products via exocytosis
    • eccrine sweat glands (regular sweat)
    • apocrine sweat glands (yellowish, puberty)
  12. Holocrine Secretion
    • The cell accumulates secretory product within
    • its cytoplasm.  
    • The cell then dies and its products are released into the lumen.  
    • A new layer of cells are ready to take its place.
    • sebaceous oil glands
  13. Meissner's Corpuscles
    touch receptors found in the papillary layer
  14. epidermal ridges
    • fingerprints
    • increase friction and gripping power
    • we leave behind fingerprints because a film of sweat is left behind by the ridges.
  15. What tissue is the reticular layer made of? 
    What is housed here?
    • dense irregular connective tissue
    • touch receptors for deep pressure (Pacinian corpuscles)
    • stretch marks
  16. Merkel Discs
    • found at the junction of the epidermis and dermis.
    • acts as light touch receptors
  17. What are functions of the skin?
    • protection from infection
    • protection from UV radiation (melanocytes)
    • temperature regulation
    • metabolism (synthesis of vitamin D)
    • receives stimuli from the environment
  18. Pacinian corpuscles
    • deep pressure receptors
    • found in reticular layer
  19. 6 functions of epithelium
    • protection
    • secretion
    • absorption
    • filtration
    • excretion
    • sensory reception
  20. Vellus hair
    finder hair of children and adult females
  21. Terminal Hair
    the coarser, longer hair of the eyebrows, armpits, and pubic region.
  22. Sections of Hair
    • In the middle is the medulla, which has large cells and air spaces. Only part of the hair that has soft keratin.
    • Outside that is the cortex, which has several layers of flattened cells.
    • The outermost cuticle is formed from a single layer of cells that overlap one another like shingles on a roof.
    • Hair conditioners smooth out the rough surface of the cuticle.
    • The cuticle tends to wear away at
    • the tip of the hair shaft, allowing the fibrils in the cortex and medulla to frizz out, resulting in split ends. 
  23. alopecia
  24. First Degree Burn
    • only the epidermis is affected
    • sunburns
    • heals in 2-3 days 
  25. Second Degree Burns
    • injures the epidermis and the upper region of the dermis. 
    • will see blisters.
    • will heal in 3-4 weeks if infection is prevented.
  26. Third Degree Burn
    • All layers of the skin are affected.
    • The burned spot will not be painful. 
    • Skin grafting is necessary.
    • Most dangerous because of the patient’s aversion to infection and fluid loss. 
  27. Basal Cell Carcinoma
    • occurs in the stratum basale
    • most common type of skin cancer and least dangerous
  28. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • involves keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum. 
    • grows rapidly, second most common type
  29. Melanoma
    • proliferation of the melanocytes
    • most malignant, highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy
    • ABCDE
  30. What is compact bone composed of?
  31. Sesamoid Bones
    • shaped like a sesame seed
    • a short bone that is formed in a tendon
    • ex: patella
  32. Diaphysis
    • the shaft (middle) of the long bone.
    • Made of a thick collar of compact bone that surrounds a medullary cavity.
  33. Epiphyses
    • ends of the long bones
    • have spongy bone inside
  34. Periosteum 
    2 layers?
    • covers the entire bone
    • outer layer is the fibrous layer (dense irregular CT)
    • inner layer is osteogenic layer, has osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteogenic cells.
  35. Endosteum
    • the inner membrane separating the compact bone from the spongy bone. 
    • Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
  36. Canaliculi
    • tiny canals that connect the lacunae to each other and to the central canal.
    • Allows for transfer of substances from one osteocyte to the next (via gap junctions). 
  37. Lamellae
    the concentric tubes in the osteon
  38. Intramembranous Ossification
    forms the skull bones and the clavicles
  39. Endochondral Ossification
    • forms all the bones in the body except the clavicles and skull bones
    • starts out as hyaline cartilage.
  40. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
    • released under hypocalcemic conditions
    • calcium in blood is too low
    • stimulates the osteoclasts to release calcium from the bones
  41. Longitudinal Bone Growth
    - 4 processes
    • 1. Growth zone - chondroblasts create hyaline cartilage
    • 2. Hypertrophic zone - old chondrocytes start to deteriorate
    • 3. Calcification zone - calcium phosphate salts move towards the epiphyseal plate and chondrocytes will die
    • 4. Ossification zone - osteoblasts move into the deteriorating hyaline cartilage stalactites. secrete new bone tissue on the diaphyseal face of the epiphyseal plate.
  42. Function of bone remodeling
    maintains levels of calcium homeostasis
  43. Calcitonin
    • released under hypercalcemic conditions
    • levels of calcium in blood are too high
    • stimulates osteoblasts to produce bone tissue
  44. Synarthroses
    immovable joints
  45. Amphiarthroses
    slightly moveable joints
  46. Diarthroses
    freely moveable joints
  47. Fibrous Joints (3)
    sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses
  48. Tendon Sheaths
    • elongated bursae that wrap around tendons to reduce friction.
    • Present in joints that are used very often.
  49. Bursae
    • flattened fibrous bags of synovial fluid associated with synovial joint.
    • Also reduces friction.
  50. Menisci
    discs of fibrocartilage that improve the fit at a synovial joint. Reduces friction as the joint moves.
  51. Plane Joint
    • movement along one or two planes
    • intertarsal joints
  52. Hinge Joint
    elbow bone
  53. Pivot Joint
    • vertebrae between C1 and C2. 
    • lets you rotate on a plane
  54. Condyloid/Ellipsoidal Joint
    • allows us to motion yes.
    • example is wrist joint.
  55. Saddle Joint
    only saddle joint in body is the metacarpal joint of thumb. 
  56.  What are the characteristics of a synovial joint?
    • A synovial joint has a two-layered articular capsule, which has a fibrous capsule on the outer membrane and the synovial membrane internally. 
    • Inside the articular capsule is the joint cavity, which contains synovial fluid.