PolSci 330

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PolSci 330
2012-10-27 20:50:46
India Pakistan

2nd midterm
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  1. 1956 States Reorganization Act
    • 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India's states and territories, organising them along linguistic lines.
    • Between 1947 and about 1950, the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union
  2. Linguistic Federalism
    Political movements for the creation of new, linguistic-based states developed around India in the years after independence
  3. Hindi
    A standardised and sanskritised register of the Hindi-Urdu language. One of the official languages of the Republic of India.
  4. Vernacular languages
    Regional languagues which in the 1920's was used to communicate with groups to mobilize participation in politics. Vernacular languages fought agasint English, for example the get english out of india movement.
  5. Medium of education
    A language used in teaching. It may or may not be the official language of the country or territory. Where the first language of students is different from the official language, it may be used as the medium of instruction for part or all of schooling.
  6. Caste/Jati
    In South India the status, functions, and organizations of the subcastes (jatis) vary considerably from one region of the country to another. Many of the subcastes are confined to a subregion of the country and others to a ocality or village.
  7. Reservations Policy
    A form of affirmative action designed to improve the well-being of perceived backward and under-represented communities defined primarily by their 'caste'
  8. Mandal Commission Report
    Recommended that in addition to the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes who were the beneficiaries of previously established qotas, now other backward castes (OBCs) who were deemed to be socially and economically deprived, would also be entitled to reservation of jobs in governments and public sector industries as well as seats in educational platforms.
  9. Scheduled Castes/Dalits
    he Scheduled Castes (SCs) and the Scheduled Tribes (STs) are two groupings of historically disadvantaged people. They are protected in the Constituion of India by the Reservation policy.
  10. Mayawati's BSP
    She served four terms as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh (UP) as head of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), which focuses on a platform of social change to improve the welfare of the weakest strata of Indian society—the Bahujans or Dalits, Other Backward Classes, and religious minorities.
  11. OBCs
    In the constitution, OBCs are described as "socially and educationally backward classes", and government is enjoined to ensure their social and educational development.
  12. Mandal and Mandir
  13. Upper castes
    is a term used in India to denote groups of people who do not qualify for any of the positive discrimination schemes operated by the government of India.
  14. V.P. Singh
    He was appointed by Indira Gandhi as the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh in 1980, when the Congress came back to power after the Janata Party interregnum. As Chief Minister, he cracked down hard on the dacoity, or banditry, problem, that was particularly severe in the rural districts of the south-west.
  15. National Front govvernment (1996-98)
    a coalition of political parties, led by the Janata Dal, which formed India's government between 1989 and 1990 under the leadership of N. T. Rama Rao as President and V. P. Singh as Convener. The coalition's prime minister was V. P. Singh. The parties in the Front were: Janata Dal of North India, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Telugu Desam Party, and Assam and Indian Congress (Socialist)
  16. Babri Masjid in Ayodhya
    The mosque was constructed in 1527 by order of Babur, the first Mughal emperor of India. It was destroyed in 1992 when a political rally developed into a riot involving 150,000 people, despite a commitment to the Indian Supreme Court by the rally organisers that the mosque would not be harmed.
  17. L.K. Advani
    Former president of the BJP. The BJP demanded that a temple dedicated to deity Rama be created at the site of the Babri Masjid. The disputed structure was destroyed by a Hindu mob, sparking massive Hindu-Muslim riots.
  18. BJP
    Indian People's Party, Established in 1980, it is India's second largest political party in terms of representation in the parliament and in the various state assemblies. The Bharatiya Janata Party advocates Hindu nationalism and social conservatism, self-reliance, social justice.
  19. Vajpayee
    Vajpayee was one amongst the founder members of Jana Sangh and had been its president also. Vajpayee renamed his former party Jana Sangh as Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). The first non-congressman to run a government for its full term, Vajpayee is often regarded as one of the best prime ministers of India.
  20. Hindutva
    Hindu nationalism
  21. Sangh Parivar
    National Volunteer Organization or National Patriotic Organization, also known as Sangh, is a right-wing, nationalist paramilitary volunteer Hindu nationalist organization in India. RSS ideology is based on the principle of selfless service to the nation.
  22. Godhra (Gujarat)
    Was a pre-planned attack by an Islamist mob that occurred in 2002, where 58 people were burnt to death in a fire inside the Sabarmati Express train near the Godhra railway station in the Indian state of Gujarat. Sparked Hindu-Muslim violence.
  23. Coaltion politics
    Formation of coalition governments reflects the transition in Indian politics away from the national parties toward smaller, more narrowly based regional parties.
  24. United Front government (1996-98)
    The United Front was a coalition government of 13 political parties formed in India after the 1996 general elections. Government made up of non-congress parties, non vernacular elites, and a colation of regional parties (OBCs).
  25. National democratic alliance (NDA)
    Led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).
  26. United Progressive alliance
    The single largest party (in terms of number of seats in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the India's parliament) in the UPA is the Indian National Congress, whose president Sonia Gandhi is also the chairperson of the UPA.
  27. Anti-Incumbency
    • An anti-incumbent vote is one exercised against elected officials currently in power. It allows the voters to register their discontent with sitting government officials, particularly when protesting against certain actions taken by the government or the elected officials in question.
    • 2012 election
  28. Narendra Modi
    Current chief minister of the Indian state of Gujarat. Narendra Damodardas Modi was born in an other backward class (OBC). Individual of interest after the Gujarat violence.
  29. Rahul Gandhi
  30. Nehruvian political economy
    Five-Year Plan in 1951, which charted the government's investments in industries and agriculture. Increasing business and income taxes, Nehru envisaged a mixed economy in which the government would manage strategic industries such as mining, electricity and heavy industries, serving public interest and a check to private enterprise. Nehru pursued land redistribution and launched programmes to build irrigation canals, dams and spread the use of fertilizers to increase agricultural production.
  31. Economic socialism
    The goal of socialist economics is to neutralize capital to coordinate the production of goods and services to directly satisfy demand (as opposed to market-induced needs), and to eliminate the business cycle and crisis of overproduction that occur as a result of an economy based on capital accumulation and private property in the means of production.
  32. State-led capitalism
    • After gaining independence from Britain, India adopted a broadly socialist-inspired approach to economic growth. Like other countries with a democratic transition to a mixed economy, it did not abolish private property in capital. India proceeded by nationalizing various large privately run firms, creating state-owned enterprises and redistributing income through progressive taxation in a manner similar to social
    • democratic Western European nations than to planned economies such as the USSR or China
  33. Import substitution industrialization (ISI)
    Advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production.
  34. License/permit raj
    Licence Raj or the Permit Raj, refers to the elaborate licenses, regulations and accompanying red tape that were required to set up and run businesses in India between 1947 and 1990. The Licence Raj was a result of India's decision to have a planned economy where all aspects of the economy are controlled by the state and licences are given to a select few.
  35. Indira Gandhi's Garibi Hatao (abolish poverty) campaign (1971)
    • Meaning "Abolish Poverty" in Hindi, theme and slogan of Indira Gandhi's 1971 election. The slogan and the proposed anti-poverty programs that came with it were
    • designed to give Gandhi an independent national support, based on rural
    • and urban poor.
  36. Bullock capitalists
    Self-Emplyed and self-funded producers. their costs of production tend to be more efficient than those of large landowners. their assets are not large enough to enable them to engage in capital-intensive agricultural production based on machinery.
  37. Punjab
  38. Sikhs
    predominately located in Punjab, monotheistic religion.
  39. Akali Dal
    a Sikhism-centric political party in India, mainly active in the Indian state of Punjab and with a small presence in Haryana
  40. Khalistan
    Khalistan movement refers to a secessionist movement which seeks to create a separate sovereign Sikh state, called Khalistan ("The Land of the Pure") in the Punjab region of South Asia.
  41. Operation Bluestar
    name of military operation called by Indira Gandhi to go to the golden temple and disrupt the sikhs.
  42. Bhopal
    • is the capital of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.
    • a Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide manufacturing plant leaked a mixture of deadly gases including methyl isocyanate on the intervening night of 2 / 3 December 1984, leading to the worst industrial disaster in the history of industrialization and a loss of
    • thousands of lives
  43. 1991 liberalization under PM Narasimha Rao and Finance Minister Manmohan Singh
  44. Service sector: BPO and IT industries
    • Business processing outsoursing
    • call centers
    • internet technology (schools and high paying jobs, emerging middle class)
  45. Indian Institutes of Technoloyg (ITTs)
    The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are a group of autonomous public engineering institutes of higher education. The IITs are governed by the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 which has declared them as “institutions of national importance”, and lays down their powers, duties, framework for governance etc.
  46. BJP's "India Shining" campaign (2004 election)
    India Shining was a marketing slogan referring to the overall feeling of economic optimism in India in 2004. The slogan was popularized by the then-ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) for the 2004 Indian general elections. Promoted Indias internationally
  47. Emerging market
    Emerging markets are nations with social or business activity in the process of rapid growth and industrialization. The economies of China and India are considered to be the largest
  48. BRICS
    • Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa
    • Leaders of emerging economies
    • The National Rural Employment Generation Scheme (NREGS) is a historic employment scheme in India for providing 100 days guaranteed wage employment for all employment seekers above 18 years of age and willing to do work.
    • he Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is an Indian job guarantee
    • scheme, enacted by legislation on August 25, 2005. The scheme provides a legal guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage of 120 (US$2.27) per day in 2009 prices