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AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma occurs most commonly in what male organ
Nerve that passes around the medial malleolus
- Saphenous (anterior tibial n)
- Sensory to the sole of the foot
- Motor to plantar flexion of toes and inversion
Infusion of saline into a patient will increase what values
Preload and SV - hence, CO increases (due to contractility of the heart increases)
Which cells are large, ovoid cells with eccentric nuclei and have chromatin at their periphery
What occurs in the space of Disse?
Passing of bilirubin from sinusoid to the hepatocyte
Autism is what kind of developmental disorder
Most common cause of post-coital bleeding
- Invasive cervical squamous cell carcinoma
- (not caused by dysplasia or high-grade invasive lesion)
Histology of acute hepatitis
Inflammatory cells, Councilman bodies, swollen hepatocytes, bile plugs in canaliculi
Histology of chronic active hepatitis
Inflammatory cells and piecemeal necrosis
Findings of HUS in terms of hemolytic anemia
- Reticulocyte count increases
- Can get glomerular fibrosis/collapse
Asparate is what kind of AA
Acidic (-) charge will migrate to the positive pole
n.b. histine and arginine are (+) and migrate to the negative pole
Elevated uracil and glutamine levels, defect in what cycle?
- Urea cycle
- Ornithine transcarbomylase deficiency (as uracil made from carbomyl phosphate, hence, not a CP-I def.)
- Increased orotic acid as it will go down the pyrimidine cycle
Parkinson's patient develops a purple coloured rash on his leg. What drug causes this?
- (livedo reticularis)
Blastomycoses = source of exposure
What happens to viral load of HIV 6 months after being diagnosed without treatment?
Stabilizes and slowly increases over many years
Anthracycline Abx for metastatic breast cancer
Where does pepsin cleave an Ab?
- Disulfide bonds yielding a divalent Fab portion that can still bind an Ag
- Fc portion of Ab crystallizes
What happens to velocity and cross-sectional area as you move from the trachea to the alveoli
Velocity decreases as cross-sectional area increases
NSAID most likely to cause renal tubular acidosis
Indomethacin (most potent)
Husband is dx with Alzheimers and wife cannot handle him at home anymore. What to do?
- Discuss in-home care options
- (don't want to move patient to a facility as rapid decline in function would be seen and also want to help wife out)
Patient dies of metastatic breast cancer, autopsy reveals small vegetations along the mitral valve
- Marantaric endocarditis
- (non-bacterial, thrombotic)
Fertilization brings the egg to what stage completion
- completion of meiosis 2
- (when the egg is released into the tube, its at metaphase 2)
Antibody against B-hCG given to preggos a week after fertilization. Consequence of the fetus?
- hCG needed in the first 3 months for continual secretion of estrogen and progesterone from the corpus luteum
- Ab will descrease these hormones: progesterone cannot maintain endometrium, and fetus will abort
Quinine is no longer used as an anti-malarial because it can produce hemolytic anemia by what role?
Acting as a hapten binding to RBCs (carrier) and creating an immunological effect
Femoral n. supplies what part of the thigh?
- Anterior level
- Extends the knee
AR disease characterized by muscle aches and weakness after severe exercise, rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, and red urine.
Dx and tx
Carnitine acyltransferase deficiency (required for FA transport into mitochondria for B-oxidation)
Cease activity and give glucose
Equation for heritability index for twins
Primaquine is affective against what kind of bug?
- Dormant forms of P.vivax and P.ovale in the liver
Most common embryological cause of an ASD
- Inadequate development of septum secundem
- Excessive reabsorption of s.s.
Anemia complication of Paget's
Myelophtisitic anemia (replacement of BM by fibrosis, tumors, or granulomas)
Treatment for shock that presents with low BP, increased HR and RR
Dx test for sore throat vs rhematic fever
- Strep pyogenes
- bacitracin sensitivity vs. ASO Ab titers
When CO decreases, what happens to MAP and TPR?
MAP decreases, TPR increases
Neurotransmitter changes in REM sleep
- Ach increases and NE decreases
- (serotonin increases as you go to sleep, and decreases as you wake up - dopamine does the opposite)
What factors can be independent risk factors for DVT
Hyperhomocystinuria (folate and B12)
Relative chance calculation associated with a case control study
- Odds ratio
- (a/b divided by c/d)
Is the spouse's permission needed when a patient seeks sterilization or abortion
Hallucination is schizophrenia (most commonly)
Mutation in the glucokinase gene
Defective insulin release from pancreas with elevated BG
damage to urethra in the bulb of the penis would cause an accumulation of urine in what location
superficial perineal space --> gains access to scrotal sacs --> then can rise under the scarpa's fascia of the skin of lower abdomen
Mechanism of delayed type IV H.S. in TB
- requires presentation of foreign molecules with MHC class II antigens
- invariant chain blocks the groove for the foreign molecule, eventually digested leaving behind a CLIP molecule. CLIP is replaced only with a exogenous Ag.
Cough, sore throat, and nasal decongestion during the winter time. Virus?
SCID (deficiency of B cells, T cells, and fungal cells).
Deficient enzyme and product?
- Adenosine deaminase
- product: inosine (from adenosine)
Tx for performance anxiety (happens occassionally)
- B1 selective blockers
- (not buspirone for GAD: also takes 2-4 weeks to work)
which disease will produce a mutant allele the same size as the normal allele on a PCR
sickle cell anemia
CF has a three base pair deletion, so would be shorter; Huntington would be a longer band.
Function of a toxoid molecule that's part of a vaccine such as H. influenza type B capsule polysaccharide
- Carrier molecule and causes immunogenicity
- hapten (=carbohydrate capsule of the organism) that elicits an immune response and can have Abs made against it
Muscles involved in abduction of shoulder
- Initiation: supraspinatus
- Upto 90 degrees: deltoid
- 90-180 degrees: serratus anterior and thoracodorsal (?)
Dx of Lyme dz
- ELISA followed by Western blot
- (difficulty in culturing organism)
Rheumatic heart fever patient presenting with pulmonary rales, pulmonary edema, pitting edema, b/l ankle edema, JVP
Mitral stenosis (much further progressed to cause left side of the heart to fail)
SLE presentation on histology (only has mild hematuria or proteinuria)
Mesangial expansion of the matrix with no proliferation of mesangial cells
Histology of RPGN
- crescent formation
- proliferation of cells within the urinary space (fibrin and macrophages due to parietal cell proliferation and glomerular damage)
Changes in exercise with conductance, SNS system, and muscle oxygen tension
- Muscle oxygen tension decreases (as muscles being used a lot)
- blood flow increases to allow for more oxygen diffusion and increased vascular conductance in the muscle
- (conductance is inverse to resistance)
- SNS increases throughout body (vasoconstriction of arterioles elsewhere)
without intervention, transplacental infection risk of HIV
with drugs and reduced # of HIV RNA, transplacental infection risk
calculating joint probabilities of 2 mutually exclusive events (e.g. type B and type AB)
Add the two probabilities
how does BG increase in pregnant women during later stages of pregnancy
- placenta secretes a GH like molecule (hPL) which antagonizes action of insulin, yet increases its secretion
- normal preggo: BG levels are normal because of increased insulin
- gestational DM: additional insulin fails to maintain BG
Estrogen and progesterone levels in a preggo
- levels secreted by the placenta are high, so suppress LH and FSH
- hence, ovarian levels are low
infective form of hookworm disease
infective form of trematodes such as schistosoma
infective form of intestinal protozoa (entamoeba and giardia)
Tx of acute pyelonephritis
- (TMP-SMX treat UTIs)
blood supply to the head, body and tail of the pancreas
- Head: from the inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. of the SMA
- body and tail: splenic artery from the celiac trunk
Mutation on the CCR5 gene on macrophages, affect on HIV prognosis
protection against HIV as CCR5 (chemokine receptor) is needed for viral entry (along with CXCR4 on T cells)
Anergy in the T-cell populations leads to?
- dysfunctional T cells
- (anergy does not prevent infection with HIV, but can increase its progression of dz)
Generalized vs. specialized tranduction in terms of progeny
generalized: bacterial parts cleaved and MAY incorporate with phage particles. when phage infects another bacterium, new progeny MAY show.
specialized: phage infects bacterium as incorportated into its chromosome. when infected another bacterium, all new progeny can show.
C.diptheria requires what molecule to become pathogenic?
- tox gene encodes the exotoxin, and present in the genome of temperate phage
- without temperate phage, diptheriod just acts like normal flora
plasmids that enter the bacterial chromosome, via recombination
AA unique to collagen
patient presents with alexia without agraphia (cannot read but can still write) and can comprehend language. Damage to what area
- occipital cortex and splenium of corpus callosum (PCA)
- visual input to the language area is affected, but not the language area itself
- cardiac tamponade (blood encases the heart)
- can occur due to trauma or from pericarditis
- cardiac contusion
- muscle tear
- occurs with trauma
- Microsporum canis (zoonotic form of ringworm)
- transmitted directly from a dog or cat
- dx: wood's lamp fluorescence
organism to cause infection of skin and nails
typical antipsychotics inhibit what other receptors to produce additional side effects
- anti-Ach: dry mouth, constipation
- a-blockers: postural hypotension
- histamine blockers: sedation
tranylcypromine vs. desipramine
MAO-inhibitor vs. TCA anti-depressant
Few hypoesthetic plaques with surface numbness. what type of leprosy and cell types?
- tuberculoid leprosy
- Th1 (high cell-mediated immunity)
pressures in the LA, LV, RA, RV, pulmonary artery
- LA: <12
- LV: 120/80 (like aorta)
- RA: <5
- RV: 25/0
- pulmonary a: 25/10
Person has a pacemaker inserted to determine his HR. His HR is doubled in a normal, sitting position - what happens to CO and SV?
- CO won't increase unless venous return increases; hence, increases SV.
- Sooooo.... SV decreases by half to maintain CO at normal levels.
Ischemic myocardium uses what mechanism for E?
cremasteric reflex involves what spinal cord levels
the notion of recognizing an experience while separating it from self (e.g. sleepwalking)
lab values for hereditary angioedema
- deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor
- decreased levels of C4, C1 and C2
- (early components of the classical pathway (i.e. C1 and C2) are used up more rapidly)
what immunological effector mechanism is associated with hyperacute and acute graft rejection?
- type II HS
- Ab and complement
Immunologic effector mechanism for graft vs. host disease
sensitization of donor CD8+ T cells against recipient (host) cells
Pathogenic feature of Giardia
- ventral sucking disc
- adheres to the mucosa of the small intestine
n.b. giardia does cause cysts as it passes down the SI but not a pathogenic feature
Low activity enzymes due to vitamin C deficiency
proline and lysyl hydroxylase
Albumin is a marker for what blood volume component, and its equation?
RBF = RPF/(1-Hct)
Burkitt's lymphoma is what type of lymphoma?
- small non-cleaved cell lymphoma
- 8;14 translocation
Interferons (a and B) inhibit viral growth via what mechanism
Inhibit viral protein synthesis
n.b. class II interferons (gamma) made by Th2 cells - stimulates macrophages, but no role in viral growth
hallucinations associated with schizo
BM aspirate reveals glycolipid-laden macrophages. Dx?
- Gaucher's disease
- enzyme: glucocerebrosidase
A baby is found with myelomeningocele. Associated defect?
Dandy-Walker (absent cerebellar vermis and enlarged posterior fossa)
what does the pol gene of HIV code for?
- RT (making DNA from RNA)
- protease (cleaves viral protein to its specific length)
- integrase (inserts into the host cell)