Test 2 Micro
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What genus has mycolic acid in their cell wall, but isn't acid fast?
What genus has metachromatic granules within their cells?
What stain do you use to see these?
- Methylene blue
What type of toxin is Diphtheria toxin?
What gene carries this toxin and how is it transmitted?
Synthesis of this gene is regulated by?
- A-B toxin
- Tox gene carried by lyosgenic phase
- Synthesis is regulated by DTxR
Diptheria toxin gene synthesis, stimulated or repressed by high iron levels?
Repressed by high iron levels
Which subunit of Corynebacterium diptheria is the recptor-binding and translocation region?
Subunit B (allows movement of catalytic A region into host cell cytosol)
Terminates host cell protein synthesis by inactivating elongation factor 2 (EF-2)
Subunit A of Corynebacterium diptheriae
Thich pseudomembrane develops over pharynx in?
Respiratory Disease (Corynebacterium diptheriae)
Culture Corynebacterium diptheriae on?
Blood agar, cysteine-tellurite agar
Used to test for Corynebacterium diptheriae. Involves antitoxin-soaked filter paper and an X.... Ask Sam
Once diptheria toxin is internalized, _______.
What can stop diptheria toxin from binding to cells?
- cell death is inevitable (think of a bull being released in cell)
- DAT (diptheria antitoxin)
Diptheria toxin is treated with ______. This messes up the toxin's ability to _________.
- bind the receptor
Gram-P or Gram-N?
Enzyme positive for?
Some have filamentous forms
Name 2 types of Actinomycetes.
Which typ of actinomycetes is a strict aerobe?
Aerial hypae found on the colonies of?
What factor of Nocardia facilitates intracellular survival by blocking fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes?
Suppurative granulomas, progressive fibrosis and necrosis, and sinus tract formation
Granuloma formation and erythematous subcutaneous nodules with eventual ulceration.
Lymphocutaneous disease (Nocardia)
Granulomatous ulcers with surrounding erythema; little involvement of draining lymph nodes.
Cellulitis and subcutaneous abscesses (Nocardia)
Can present initially as chronic meningitis.
Nocardia (CNS infections)
Rhodococcus (also aerobic)
Facultative intracellular organism survives in macrophages and causes granulomatous lesion with abscess. (Originally considered an occupational pathogen of farmers and veterinarians)
Actinomycetes Diseases (not already listed)
- Exudative dermatitis
- Whipple's Disase
- Allergic pnemonitis (farmer's lung)
What bacteria give you farmer's lung?
2 enzymes that inactivate toxic oxygen metabolites for Nocardia.
Infection intrinsic to the skin
Primary skin infection
Systemic or other organ dysfunction manifested in the skin.
Secondary skin infection
Which disease affects the stratum corneum?
Name 1 disease that affects the epidermis.
Name 2 diseases that affect the dermis.
Necrotic tropical ulcer affects what layer?
Fat (If I go to a tropical resort, I get fat.)
Necrotizing fasciitis affects what layer?
Name 1 disease that affects the muscle layer.
Name a complication of Impetigo.
Superficial bacterial infection of hair follicles within the epidermis: usually localized.
What organism causes this?
Pathogen and tx of Hot Tub Folliculitis.
- No tx required
Infection of hair follicles extending into subcutaneous tissue. (boil or risin)
Serious deep-seated infection involving several hair follicles.
Carbuncles (Carbs provide lots of energy to spread to multiple hair follicles :-)
Acute inflammatory, superficial infection of lower legs, face, or ears
Erysipelas (basically swelling)
Most Erysipelas is caused by?
S. pyogenes (though S. aureus can cause some)
Treat Erysipelas with?
1st Gen. Cephalosporin
Red swollen ear.
Expanding red, swollen, hot, tender plaque w/ indefinite border
Necrosis (skin is dusky blue to black and bullae are often present)
Primary Pyyoderms: Necrotizing soft tissue infection (SURGICAL EMERGENCY!)
How do you treat necrotizing fasciitis?
- Multiple debridements
- Clindamycin + ampicillin + metronidazole
- Clindamycin +piperacillin/tazobactam
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