Chapter 9 - Muscle physiology

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Author:
lhills
ID:
180317
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Chapter 9 - Muscle physiology
Updated:
2012-10-29 09:59:00
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muscle histology physiology
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Muscular System - histology & physiology
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  1. Functions of the Muscular System
    • 1. movement of the body
    • 2. maintenance of posture
    • 3. respiration
    • 4. production of body heat
    • 5. communication
    • 6. constriction of organs and vessels
    • 7. contraction of the heart
  2. Contractility
    ability of the muscle to shorten with force
  3. Excitability
    capacity of muscles to respond to a stimulus (from our nerves)
  4. Extensibility & Elasticity
    • Extensibility: muscle can be stretched to its normal resting length and beyond to a limited degree
    • Elasticity: ability of muscle to recoil to original resting length
  5. Types of muscle tissue
    Skeletal, smooth, & cardiac
  6. Skeletal muscle tissue
    • -Voluntary
    • -Responsible for locomotion, facial expressions, posture, respiratory movements, other types of body movement
  7. Smooth muscle tissue
    • -walls of hollow organs, blood vessels, eye, glands skin
    • -functions: propel urine, mix food in digestive tract, dilating/constricting pupils, regualting blood flow
    • -autorhythmic in some locations
    • -controlled involuntary by endocrine & autonomic nervous system
  8. Cardiac muscle tissue
    • -Heart: major source of movement of blood
    • -autorhythmic
    • -controlled involuntarily by endocrine & autonomic nervous system
  9. Skeletal Muscle structure
    • -composed of muscle cells (fibers), connective tissue, blood vessels, & nerves
    • -fibers are long, cylindrical, multinucleated
    • -tend to be smaller diameter in small muscles and larger in large muscles (1mm - 4cm in length)
    • -develop from myoblasts; numbers remain constant
    • -striated appearance due to light and dark banding
  10. Connective Tissue coverings of muscle
    • Layers
    • Epimysium: C.T. that surrounds a whole muscle (many fascicles)
    • Perimysium: Denser C.T. surrounding a group of muscle fibers.  Each group called a fasciculus
    • Endomysium: Loose C.T. with reticular fibers
    • Muscular fascia: C.T. sheet
    • -external to epimysium
    • -holds muscles together and separates them into function groups

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