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What are some common causes of abnormal behaviours in livestock?
overcrowding, insufficient space, boredom, barren enviro, hunger, stress/distress, temperature, drafts
What does Dark-Firm Dry meat indicate?
What does Pale-Soft-Exudative meat indicate?
Good Science + Good Communication=
Good animal welfare
Difference between animal rights and animal welfare? 4 factors of each.
Welfare: making sure animals are treated properly, incorporates everything, how the animal is physically and emotionally being treated, based on ways in which animals are cared for, etc
Rights: assigns human attributes to animals, food shelter painless life, law, legislation, extremists, what animals are entitled to, etc.
Working definition of animal welfare?
The animal in complete mental and physical health, the animal in harmony with it's environment, the animal being able to adapt without suffering, to an articical environment provided by human beings, with the animal's feelings somehow taken into account.
Welfare has to do with ______ animals.
What was the contribution of pre-Christian Religions?
- Moses: better to commit murder than to tolerate cruelty or injustice to a slave or labourer, evidence of keen attention paid to needs of domestic animals.
- Ex. Rebekah voluntereed to draw water for the camels of abraham's servant
Book of Isaiah contribution to animal welfare?
Invokes image of a shepherd- against the slaughter of animals for sacrifice
Animal welfare in Zoroastrian Religion?
One must be judged by ones deeds.. Zoroaster was a great lover of horses and cattle.
Jainism role in animal welfare?
Jains go to extemes that their monks wear mouth bands so they don't injure an insect. Takes animal welfare into account more than any other religion.
Pythagoras role in animal welfare?
Would purchase animals for sale in the streets then set them free.
Aristotle's role in animal welfare?
Keen appreciation that animals were sensitive to pain.
Areopagus (Greek Supreme Court) role in animal welfare?
Condemned to death the farmer that skinned a live ram and the boy who blinded a bat.- Had the idea that animal cruelty relays onto how abusers will treat people.
Role of Christianity in animal welfare?
Took idea of mercy to animlas into account and found the ill-treatment of animals incompatible with the Christian way of life.
St. Francis of Assisi's role in animal welfare?
Felt deeply about the blood-brotherhood bond of man and animals, and foremost advocate for animal defense.
St. Thomas Aquina's role in animal welfare?
Opposite ideas, supported animal cruelty. Dealt the humane movement a blow.
Renaissance role in animal welfare?
Animals speculated to have souls. Further develeoped the blood-brotherhood idea.
Rene Descarte's role in animal welfare?
"I think, therefore I am". Countered idea that animals have souls, assumes animals have no feelings.
Quaker Movement influence on animal welfare?
Preach non-violence even in face of aggression.
John Locke's role in animal welfare?
Raising children with an "abhorrence of killing and tormenting any living creature..".
John Wesley's role in animal welfare?
Believed animals had souls.
Dr. Humphrey Primatt's role in animal welfare?
Published A Dissertation on the Duty or Mercy and Sin of Cruelty to Brute Animals. -First book devoted entirely to teaching the duty of kindness to animals.
Jeremy Bentham's role in animal welfare?
Published Principles of Penal Code. - Took view that animal cruelty be recognized by law as a crime.
John Lawrence's role in animal welfare?
Farmer. Published book on horses and drew attention to need for legislation to protect animals. Mentioned story of butchers who cut off feet of live sheep and drove them down street- each man was charged 20 shillings, despite absence of a law.
First attempts of animal welfare legislation?
- 1800: Sir Pulteney- introduced bill to ban bull baiting
- 1802: Bill introduced a second time with more supporters
- 1809: Bill introduced a third time with even more support
- 1821: Richard Martin introduced bill on ill-treatment of horses and cattle, bill was passed due to excessive laughter in courthouse. BILL CLAIMED BY THE ROYAL SOCIETY FOR THE PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS. First law of its kind in any country.
Anti-cruelty laws in 1835?
- -London By-law stopping dog fighting and cock fighting within 5km radius of Temple Bar
- -New bill giving protection to all domestic animals, including dogs and outlawing bear baiting, badger baiting, bull baiting, dog fights and cock fights.
Anti-cruelty laws in 1895?
Kennel Club prohibited any dog with cropped ears from winning a prize
Charles Darwin's contribution to animal welfare?
1859- presented origen of species, with idea of universal kinship between man and animal.
What was anti-vivisection?
- 1876- law says animals used in an experiment must be anaesthetised and if anaesthic wears off must be euthanised.
- - such experiments on animlas must not be used as lecture demos: dogs, cats, horses, mules and cattle.
Theory of John Q. Public?
While the public did not want animals to suffer pain, the public did not and do not wan tto stop the man who inflicts pain in order to acquire knowledge.
List 3 animal welfare societies.
- - American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
- -Animal Defense Society
- - Universities Federation for Animal Welfare
Who was Ruth Harrison?
- Was a British Housewife, wrote a series of newspaper articles regarding her observations on how farm animals were being raised "Animal Machines".
What was the Brambell Report?
- A UK government comissioned investigation into the welfare of intensively raised farmed animals- partly in response to Ruth Harrison's book 'animal machines'.
- Lead to the farm animal welfare advisory committee.
What were the Brambell Recommendations?
- Required animals have the freedom to:
- Turn around, groom themselves, to get up, to lie down and to stretch their limbs- later elaborated to become the five freedoms.
What are the 5 Freedoms?
- 1. Freedom from hunger, thirst and malnutrition.
- 2. Freedom from discomfort.
- 3. Freedom from pain, injury and disease.
- 4. Freedom to express normal behaviour.
- 5. Freedom from fear and distress.
Animal Welfarist views?
- Argue that animal rights goes too far and they do not advocate the elimination of all animal use or companionship.
- Welfarists believe humans have moral responsibility not to cause cruelty to animals.
Animal Rights views?
- Argue that it is not possible to better the condition of animals without completely abolishing animal use and companionship
- However some animal rights groups support welfare in the short term to alleviate suffering.
List 5 Examples of animal rights groups.
- Animal Liberation Front (ALF)
- In Defense of Animals
- Compassion over Killing
- Friends of Animals
List 3 Examples of animal rights campaigns.
- Primate Freedom Project
- Farm Sanctuary
- Animal Rights Militia
- United Poultry Concerns
- Bite Back
- Chicken Out
What are the different types of animal welfare views?
- - animal exploiters' animal welfare- reassurance from those that use animals that they are treated well
- - commonsense animal welfare- average persons concern to avoid cruelty
- -Humane animal welfare- more principled opposition to animal cruelty ( against fur and sport)
- -Animal liberationist animal welfare: strives to minimize suffering, but accepts some animal use for the greater good.
- -Animal welfare/ animal rights views: does not distinguish between the two.
What is a utilitarianism view on animal welfare?
- All sentiment creatures are equally entitled to have their interests considered. A type of consequentiality ethical theory.
- Puts subject welfare first
- Actions are right or wrong by the consequences they produce
- (Should give equal consideration to all persons affected and do what is most beneficial for all).
- Ex. Child falling into pond. Stop to help or not?
A prejudice or attitude of bias in favor of the interests of members of one's own species, and against those of other species. Ex Sexists, racists, specists.
Capacity to feel sensations.
All life, conscious or not, is worthy of respect.
List the 9 turning points in the Humane Movement.
- 1. Mosaic Law- biblical law and image of shepherd, but okay to sacrifice animals
- 2. Descarte- sees animals as machines with no feelings.
- 3. Bentham- Emphasizes whether animals can suffer
- 4. First humane law to pass in UK - formation of SPCA
- 5. Brambell Report- 1965 Result of Ruth Harrisons book 'animal machines'.
- 6. McDonald's Restaurants - Ushered in a new era of pressure being put on coporations and retailers rather than producers. (implemented ideas of Temple Grandin)
- 7. Codes of Practice- Canadian and Globally
- 8. HSUS use of proposition ballots in the US to ban production practices
- 9. Undercover videos
What are some indirect tactics animal rights activists use?
Become shareholders in food production companies.
CVMA definition of animal welfare?
Animal welfare is the ethical responsibility of ensuring animal well-being. Animal well-being is the condition in which animals experience good health, are able to effectively cope with their environment, and are able to express a diversity of species-typical behaviours. Protecting an animal's welfare means providing for it's physical and mental needs.
Why is a definition of animal welfare needed?
- scientific study
- legislative purposes
- practical use
What are the necessary components to an animal welfare definition?
- Must refer to characteristics of an individual which is measurable
- The measurement should be separate from any judgement which is made concerning what is morally acceptable
How does Broom define animal welfare?
The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment
How does the definition of coping change?
Changes over time and according to conditions
What is the welfare continuum?
Measurements of welfare from very good to very poor.
Is welfare situation specific?
- Dr. Gary Moberg says yes (stress physiologist)
- Dr. Don Broom says no (ethologist)
What is the relationship between welfare and stress?
- Stress is often equated with adrenal cortex activity, but in popular usage stress almost universally refers to something which has adverse effects on the individual
- Failure to cope (distress)= poor welfare
What is the difference between animal well-being and animal welfare?
- Well-being has a stronger connotation of subjective feeling
- Used to refer more to the individuals perception of state than to the state itself
- These feelings are a substantial part of welfare, but are not all of it.
What is Brambell's definition of animal welfare?
Welfare is a wide term that embraces both the physical and mental well-being of the animal. Any attempt to evaluate welfare, therefore, must take into account the scientific evidence available concerning the feelings of animals that can be derived from their structure and functions and also from their behaviour.
How does Duncan define animal welfare?
Welfare is all the do with what animals feel.
What is a working definition of animal welfare?
- In good physical and mental health
- in harmony with its environment
- able to adapt to its enviro without suffering
- with account taken of its feelings
What is the role of sentience in animal welfare?
- It is a necessary prerequisite.
- Therefore not an issue for phylogenetically lower organisms, ex plants. Does not mean they have no value, only means it is inappropriate to consider welfare.
Common argument for determining at which phylogenetic level sentience occurs?
Is there a difference between sensing and feeling?
What is the main topic of the biological funtioning school?
Exactly what constitutes coping?
In which order does the biological functioning school propose welfare needs should be listed? (Based on importance)
Life-sustaining, health- sustaining, and comfort sustaining.
Are physiology and welfare completely linked?
No, normally, but animals can show signifcant stress response when engaged in rewarding activities.
What does the feelings school believe?
- Welfare is all to do with what the animal feels.
- Welfare is the absence of negative states ( suffering) and the presence of positive states ( pleasure).
- Question: is the animal happy?
What is the biological functioning school's definition of animal welfare?
- Absence of a stress response, animal's able to cope, animals able to meet their biological needs.
- Question? is the animal fit and healthy?
Animal welfare is a characteristic of the _______, not a ______.
What are two components for animal welfare?
- scientific assessment- mortality, rate of injury, incidence of disease, amount of abnormal behaviour
- moral judgement- evaluates what is unacceptable (how bad is bad?)
What shifts the moral position on animal welfare?
The more we learn about the animals in terms of complexity and behavioural organization.
What experimental methods are used to assess emotional state?
- behavioural assessments
- physiological assessments
What are the steps in measuring behaviour scientifically?
- 1. Question/ preliminary observations
- 2. Hypotheses / predictions
- 3. Choose behaviour measures and experimental design
- 4. Define behavioural measures
- 5. Select Recording Measures, practice
- 6. Collect and analyze data
Ascribing uniquely human characteristics or qualities to non-human objects, such as other animals or inanimate objects.