atmosphere and weather test review

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atmosphere and weather test review
2010-05-05 22:26:41
atmosphere weather test review

atmosphere, climate change, weather and meteorology...
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  1. Layers of the atmosphere (closest to farthest)
    troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere
  2. atmosphere protects us from what?
    ultraviolet rays from the sun by blocking and absorbing them
  3. temperature and pressure changes with increasing altitude
    zig-zaggin temps (in troposhere, with rising altitude, temperatures drop... stratosphere rising altitude temperatures rise.....)

    pressure decreases as altitudes raise
  4. composition of the earth's atmosphere
    • 78% nitrogen
    • 21% oxygen
    • .9% argon
    • .03% carbon dioxide
    • small % of others
  5. most common element in atmosphere
  6. what is a greenhouse gas
    gases like methane, chlorofluorocarbons, and carbon dioxide that act as a shield to trap heat in the earth's atmosphere.
  7. What causes greenhouse gases?
    human activity such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation (polution)
  8. What is the greenhouse effect?
    the rise in temperature that the earth experiences because certain gases trap energy from the sun. Without this, heat would escape back into space.
  9. What is climate change?
    an change in global temps/precipitation/wind over time
  10. stages in the water cycle
    evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff
  11. evaporation
    the process of a liquid changing into vapor (heat)
  12. water cycle
    the cycle of evaporation and condensation that controls the distribution of the earth's water
  13. condensation
    process of a vapor changing into a liquid (cooling)
  14. precipitation
    water that falls to the ground in a liquid/solid form (rain, snow, hail...)
  15. runoff
    precipitation that cannot be absorbed by the ground and moves over the surface
  16. source of all energy on earth
    the sun
  17. What process causes the winds to blow?
    the heating and cooling of air (hot air rises, cool air sinks...) and pressure differences
  18. How does the Coriolis Effect work?
    the deflection of a moving mass of water/air to the right in Northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere
  19. coriolis effect
    • #1 = The Sun: causes the water to evaporate
    • #2= Clouds (condensation): process of a vapor changing into a liquid
    • #3 = Evaporation: the process of a liquid changing into vapor (heat)
    • #4 = Precipitation: water that falls to the ground in a liquid/solid form (rain, snow..)
    • #5= The Ocean (runoff :p) precipitation that cannot be absorbed by the ground and moves over the surface
  20. What causes the coriolis effect?
    the earth's rotation and polar winds
  21. How does density relate to temperature and humidity of air?
    • humid air= less dense
    • less humidity=greater density
    • high density=cool temps
    • low density=high temps
  22. land breezes and sea breezes
    land heats faster than water so during the morning, the warm air rises off the land and is replaced by the cooler air coming off the water.. visa-versa at night (land cools faster than water too...)
  23. what are doldrums?
    light winds that persist over equilateral regions of earth
  24. how do clouds form?
    saturated (humid) air is cooled below its new point causing water droplets to condense around dust particles in the atmosphere
  25. isotherms
    line drawn on a weather map/chart linking similar temps
  26. isobars
    lines drawn to indicate regions of similar pressure
  27. front
    boundary between air masses of different temperature/pressure

  28. Answer questions... whats missing?
    • Circle shows cloud cover
    • upper left=temperature
    • MISSING>>>>upper right=air pressure between 960-1050
    • lower left= dewpoint
    • flag=wind direction and wind speed (1/2 flag=5 knots... 1 flag=10 knots)
    • (should be) directly left=precipitation
  29. humidity
    amount of water vapor held in the air
  30. precipitation
    water falling from clouds- including rain, snow, sleet, and hail- whose form is determined by air temp
  31. coriolis effect
    causes moving air and water to turn left in s hemisphere and turn right in n hemisphere due to earth's rotation
  32. fog
    stratus cloud that forms when air is cooled to its dew point near the ground
  33. weather
    state of the atmosphere at a specific time and place, determined by factors including air pressure, moisture in air, temp, and wind
  34. relative humidity
    measure of the amount of moisture held in the air compared with the amount it can hold at a given temp; range from 1% to 100%
  35. ozone layer
    layer of the stratosphere with a high concentration of ozone; absorbs most of the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation
  36. radiation
    energy transferred by waves or rays
  37. atmosphere
    earth's air, which is made up of a thin layer of gases, solids, and liquids; forms a protective layer around the planet and is divided into five distinct layers...
  38. convection
    transfer of heat by the flow of material
  39. condensation
    process in which water vapor changes into a liquid
  40. conduction
    transfer of energy that occurs when molecules bump into each other
  41. hurricane
    large, severe storm that forms over tropical oceans, has winds of at least 120 km/h and loses power when it reaches land
  42. ultraviolet radiation
    a type of energy that comes to earth from the sun, can damage skin and cause cancer, and is mostly absorbed by the ozone layer
  43. troposphere
    layer of earth's atmosphere that is closest to the ground, contains 99% of the water vapor and 75% of the atmospheric gases; where clouds and weather occur
  44. meteorologist
    studies weather and uses information from doppler radar, weather satellistes, computers and other instruments to make weather maps and provide forecasts
  45. a ___ is used to measure air pressure in units of ____
    barometer.... millibars
  46. winds are named by _____
    where they come from
  47. warm front
  48. cold front
  49. stationary front
  50. high pressure... clockwise, out, down
  51. low pressure... counterclockwise, in, up
  52. weather brought by a low
    warm and wet... precipitation
  53. weather brought by a high
    cool and dry... clear