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What are the 3 domains of life
bacteria, archaea & eukarya
how many species of prokaryotes have been named?
How many others are there?
this represents about 1% of all species
what techniques have/are used to identify prokaryotes?
whats a mojor obstacle in identifiactation?
- collecting and culturing
- DNA sequencing
some mutate so fast by the time they are cultured they ahve already changed
- cell type: prokaryotic
- introns: rare
- peptidoglycan in cell wall: yes
- histones: absent
- cell type: prokaryotic
- introns: in some
- peptidoglycan in cell wall: no
- histones: in some species
- cell type: eukaryotic
- introns: yes
- peptidoglycan in cell wall: no
- histones: yes
internal features of prokaryotes -
What are they lacking?
- plasmamembrane - sourounds cytoplasma and regulates in and out functions
- rhybosomes - cell structure responsible for creation of protiens
- cytosol - gel like stuff that contains enzyems
*they do not have a nucleus!
external features of prokaryotes (4 things)
- fimbrae/pili- little hairs that help adhere stuff
- cell wall - contains peptidoglycan, allows for more diverse living envoirnments
- capsuel- protects the cell when engulgfed by others, and from dehydration
- Flagella - tails for moving around
3 shapes of prokaryotes anad what they look like-
what is the stem vocab for chain?
" for pairs
'' for clusters
2 other life styles?
- Round balls are cocci
- rod shaped are bacilli
- long twisty are spirochette
- chains are termed strepto
- clusters are termed staphyl
- pairs are termed di
single solitary cells
or as a biofilm
gram negative vs gram positive?
which is generally more harmful?
gram positive - simple cell wall, lots of peptidoglycan, traps the die and turn blueish purple
gram negative - more complex cell wall, less peptidoglycan outer membrane of lipids
gram neg are more harmfull as the outer lipids are often very toxic
why are prokaryotes so sucseesful? (3 reasons)
1. extremly ffast reproduction - binnary fision
- 2. genetic variation -
- spontaneous mutations at each replication
- exchange of plasmids - horizontal gene transfer
3. resistant cells- endospore(inner cell with thick protective coat can dehydrate and become dorminat) ex: Bacillus anthracis
do all cells have -
a plasma membrane?
- plasma membrane - yes all cells have a plasma membrane
- nucleus - no prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus
- cell wall - no animal cells do not have a cell wall
the 5 diversities of bacteria
- 1. proteobacteria - gram neg eg: escherichia coli
- 2. gram pos - eg: streptomyces
- 3. cyanobacteria - plant like (no chloroplast) nitrogen fixation eg: anabaena
- 4. chlamydias - live insid eeukaryotes
- 5. spirochetes notorious pathogens eg: terponema pallidium
what are extremeophiles,
who are they more closely related to?
Archaea, prokaryotes that can live in extreme envoirnments.
the three types are halophiles (salty), thermophiles (heat), methanogens (methane live in rumens of animals), phsycrophiles (cold temp)
they are more closly related to plants and animals then to bacteria
________% of human disease are caused by________
50% & bacteria
why is pathenogenic bacteria so harmful?
- exotoxin - gram (+), excreted, polypeptide, chlastridium bacteruim & botilium toxin
- endotoxin - gram (-), part of pathogen cell wall, lipopolysacrdide
what is bioremediation
to remove pollutants and toxins with micro organisms, biofilms that eat sewage or eat oil.
what organisms are considered prokaryotes?
prokaryotes include bacteria and archaea
eukaryotes are protists plants animals and fungi
prokaryotic cells vs eukaryotic cells
same- plasmamembranes, chromosomes, ribosomes
diferences- prokaryotes are smaller, no nucleuas, no membrane enclosed organelles
plant cells vs animal cells diferences
- plant cells have-
- a cell wall, large central vacuole, chloroplast, plasmodesma
animals - lysosome and centriole
what is a protist
a eukaryote that is not an animal plant or fungi
are most protists multicelluar or uni cellular? why is this significant?
most protists are unicellular, because they are living as a unicellular organism all the specific functions for life (carried out by specialized cells in multis) are accomplished by the one cell
i.e. a unicellular protist is the most complex type of cell!
what is primary endosymbiosis?
when a heterotrophic eukaryote englufed a cyanobacteria (photo-autotroph) it evolved into a chloroplast. huge advantage
thus the chloroplast still replicates its own DNA withing the host
what is secondary endosymbiosis?
when a heterotrophic eukaryote engulfes the product of primary endosymbios i.e. a hetrerotrophic eukaryotes eats up a green algea. the algea evolved into the organells of the cell
distinguish between primary and secondary endosymbiosis
in primary the endosymbiant (thing being eaten) is a prokaryote
in secondary the endosymbiant is a eukaryote
what is chromalveolates?
a "super group" of protist containing autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic species both multi & unicellualr
what is a diatom?
autotrophic unicellular algea with unique "glassy" silica cell walls. consits of two halves like a box
diatomaceous earth mined for filtering medium
what are dinoflagellates?
unicellular auto, hetro and mix otrophs
produce red tides
NOT A PLANT!
autotrophic protists multicellular
what are water molds
heterotrophic unicellular protits
decompose species in fresh water
*caused the potatoe blight
what are cilia?
- hetero/ mixo trophs
- move by swiming or crawling with their cillias
(causes malari) & parmacium
which subgroups of chromovealates include autotrophs?
diatoms, dinoflagelates and brown algea
what are excavetas? examples?
protist lacking 'clasical' mitochondria, consits of many parrasites
trichomonas vaginilis and girdia intestinalis
what is/are peudopodia
the lobe/arm like parts of slim mold use to engulf another cell
this is called phagocytosis
what is the diference between plasmodium and plasmodium
plasmodium refers to a multinucleate mass or supper cell
plasmodium refers to chrmolveolalte protists which causes malaria
4 key features of plasmodial slime mode
- 1. one giant supper cell
- 2.cytoplasmic streaming (moves in waves of cytoplasm) to engluf food, transport nutrients oxygen and info
- 3. phagocytosis - eats by spreading pseudopodia (arms/lobes) around a food source and englufing it
- 4. reproduction - when coditions are unfavorable plasmodium stops growing and developes reproductive structures that produce spores. spores realease haploid cells that fuse to form a zygote
what is the difference of a plasmodial and cellular slime mold?
a plasmodium is unicellular 'super cell' with thousnads of nucleii unrestricted in a plasma membrane ex physarum
cellular slime mold is slug like mass of many cells (multicellular), certin cells will dry out to create a stalk ex dictyostelium
3 useable examples of red algea
- carrageenan - cellulite for food processing
- nori - sushi wrapping
- agar - media in petri dishes
archeaplastid - what is it where did it come from?
autotrophic eukaryotes which contain land plants, green algea and red algea
derived from primary endosymbiosis of cyanobacterium and eveolution into a chloroplast.
how does chromosone number difer from gametophytes and sporophytes?
gametophytes are haploid and the sporophyte is diploid
what is the alternation of generations
switching the reproductive method between gametophytes and sporophytes from one generation to the next
a gametophyte plant (haploid)--->mitosis----> gamete
2 gametes join--->zygote--->developes into a sporophyte(diploid)
the sporophyte(diploid) makes spores by meiosis--->develope into gametophytes (haploid)------>repeat process
what is the major difference between multicellular and unicellular organisms?
in unicellular organisms all the functions of life are carried out within the single cell
multicelluar organisms have speacilized cells that preform different fucntions
what are the 3 diffrent paths for the evolution of multicellularity?
- 1. chromalveolates (brown algea)
- 2. unikonts (fungi and animals)
- 3. Archaeplastids (red/green alga, land plants)
major function of a cell wall
maintains cells shape, provides physical protection, keeps cell from bursting in hypotonic envoirnment
main function of the capusuela
enables cells to stick together or to a substrate and shields pathogens from hosts devensive cells
main function of a flagella
to move the cell in response to chemical or physical signals. also to circulate food/water to the cell
main function of fimbrea
similar to capsuela it helps the cell to stick to stuff or to eachother
main function of an endospore
an iner cell which can de/re hydrate based on conditions to withstand harsh conditions
animlas, charophytes, unikonts, archeaplastids, choanoflagleates, fungi
- A- archeplastids
- B- charophytes
- C- unikonts
- D- fungi
- E- choanoflaglets
- F- animals
in terms of nutrition autotrophs are to heterotrophs as
a - kelp are to diatoms
b- archaea are to bacteria
c- slime molds are to algea
d- algea are to slime molds
e- pathogenic bacteria are to harmless bacteria
D- algea (autotrophs) are to slime molds (hetrotrophs)
the bacteria that cause tetnaus can be killed only by prolonged heating at temps considerably higher then boiling. this suggests that tetnus bacteria has
a- cell walls contqaining peptidoglycan
b- protect themselves by secreting antibiotics
c- secrete endotoxins
d- are autotrophic
e- produce endospores
e the endospores protect it in harsh envoirnments
glycolosis is the only metabolic pathway common to nearly all organisms. to scientists this suggests that it
a- evolved many times during the history of life
b- was first seen in early eukaryotes
c- appeared early in life history
d- must be very complex
e- appeared rather recently in the evolution of life
c if it is comon to all life then it would have had to be there before they started splitting and evolvoing independly of each other.
a new organism has been discovered. tests reveal that it is unicellular, autotrophic, and has a cell wall that contains peptidoglycan. based on this evidence it should be classiififed as a(n)
d bacterium ar ethe only with peptidoglycan
which pair of protits has supoprt structures of silica
a- dinoflagellates & diatoms
b- diatoms and radiolarinas
c- radiolariums and forams
d- forams and amoebozoans
e- amobozoans and dinoflaggelates
b- diatoms and radiolarians
which of the following groups is incorectly paired with its example
a- excavetes - trypansome (sleeping sickness)
b- chromalveolates - parasites such as plasmodium
c- chromalveolates - brown algea
d- unikonts - water mold
e- archeplastids - red algea
d unikonts - watermold
water mold is a chromoveolates!
which of the following prokaryotes is not pathenogenic?
e- bacillius anthracis
b- rhizobium is benifiacl and not a pathogen
plasmodium causing malaria
evidence for the evolution of eukaryotes/endosybiotic theory
duoble membrane of mitocondria nad chloroplasts
- mitochondria and chloroplast have their own DNA and ribosomes
- mitochondria and chloroplast canont be made from scratch
what do algea and land plants have in common?
Both multicelluar, eukaryotes, both ahve cholorplasts and use photosynthesis.
they both lack lysosomes and centriolles
what are the challenges for life moving on to land (4 of em)
- 1. cells needed a way to maintain moisture
- 2. had to gain resources from multiple locations (air, ground)
- 3. needed to develope a rigid structure for support
- 4. reproduction and dispersal whit little or no water
- surrounding water supports alga, whole alga preforms photosynthesis, absorbs water & co2 and minerals from water, sperms travel in water
- stomata only on sporophytes, primitive roots anchor plant, no lignin, no vascualr tissue, water still needed for reproduction
- stomata on all, roots anchor plants and absorb water, ligninfied cell walls, vascular tissue, reproduction requires water
- seed plants
- stomata, roots anchor plants and absorb, lignfied cell walls, vascualr tissues Fertilization does not need water.
how do plants retain moisture
through a waxy cuticle containg stomata...open to allow exchange of co2 & o2 and close to prevent dehydration
3 features to obtain resources from multiple locations
shoot- preforms photosythesis
root - water & nutrient uptake
vascular tissue (xylem & pholem) transport water and nutrients energy
what is lignin
a chemical in plants that provides ridgidity and strenght of the plant
what allows plants to grow tall
ligning for strenght but also need vascular tissue to transport material high above ground
what is a byrophyte
no vanscular non seeding plant i.e. hornwarts, liverworts and mosses
seedless vascular plants
- pterophytes (ferns and such)
- lycophytes(club mosses spike mosses)
- gymnospers are the first seed bearing plants
- angiosperms are later and have flowers
name three examples of gymnospers
conifers, ginko balboa and ephedra
4 key points in the evolution of land plants
- 1. dependent embryos are present in all plants
- 2. lingnified vascular tissue mark a lineage of tall growing plants
- 3. seeds mark the lineage of angiosperms and gymnosperms
- 4. flowers mark the lineage of angiosperms
how does gamet production differ in plants and animals?
in animals gamets are produced by meiosis (animals do not have a multicellular haploid stage) in plants gamets are made from a multicelluar haploid plant through mitosis
non vascular plants (mosses) have a dominat _________ stage
sporophytes are _______ and go through _________
while gametophytes are ________ and go through _________
sporophytes are diploid and go throught meiosis
gametophytes are haploid and have mitosis
what is significant about sclerenchyma cells compared to parenchyma & collenchyma
sclerenchyma is the combination of a primary and secondary cell wall
is there such thing as a non vascular flowering plant?
what about seed bearing non vascular
NO! vascular tissue developed before seeds or flowers therefore anything with a seed or flower will also have vascular tissues
do humans have alteration of generations? why/not?
NO! animals do not exist in a multicellular haploid phase. animals ONLY haploid stage is as a sperm/egg
2 things mosses poseess and 3 things they do not
- they have
- apical meristem & embryotephyte
- they lack
- vascular tissue, true roots, real leafes
what is so great about sphagnum?
its peat moss, the cell wall has a compound that slows its decay which is why its so good at preserving. also is an important source of carbon.
ferns - 3 things they got but what are they still lacking?
- they have
- vascular tissue, real leafes, real roots
they still need water so the sperm can go swiming
begining with ferns all land plants have a dominant ____________ stage?
diploid sporophyte stage
what is a significant diffrence in regardes to the gametotype in the alternation of generations between mosses and ferns
in ferns the gametotype dies and the sporophyte becomes an independent plant
what is significant about the carboniferous period?
an abundance of land plants got so effiecent at fixing CO2 that it actually caused a reverse green house, earth got colder and many died creating the carbinferous coal deposits we have today. also allowed for greater spread of (protected) seed bearing plants
what is a seed?
plant embro + protective coat + food suply
what is the difference between polination and fertilization?
polination is the transfer of pollen by wind or animals from stamens to the tips of carples
fertilization is the union of egg and sperm
____ percent of plants are angiosperms
what is a fruit?
the rippened ovary of a flower. these can be typical fruits, parachute like dandelion shit is also a fruit as is the sticky little fuckers that get stuck on your dog
monocots vs eudicots
- 1 seed leaf, viens in leaves parellel, complex vascular bundle, floral parts in *3, fibourous root
- 2 seed leafs, branched veins in leaf, vascular ring, floral parts in *4 or *5, long tap root