Andean Art Midterm

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seanna24
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180403
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Andean Art Midterm
Updated:
2012-11-05 17:35:41
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ARTH
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Preceramic, Initial, etc.
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  1. Date?
    Methods of creating the mummy?
    What type of society this was?
    How mummies were probably used?
    What eventually was done with them eventually was done with them?
    Possible reasons for mummification?
    • Chinchorros mummy
    • Black mummy
    • Date (Preceramic)
    • Methods of creating the mummy (body decomposed, then bones reassembled w/ropes and canes, the insides replaced by fiber stuffing and encased in a form-imitating sewn casement)
    • What type of society this was (egalitarian, mostly based on fishing)
    • How mummies were probably used (kept above ground for ancestor worship)
    • What eventually was done with them eventually was done with them (buried in cemeteries)
    • Possible reasons for mummification (ancestor worship, need to deal with grief, especially as many are children), They are older than mummification in Egypt

  2. Site?
    Cultural tradition?
    What type of rites went on in Kotosh tradition shrines?
    Date?
    Location?
    What crossed arms might represent?
    How context supports symbolism?
    What was placed in niche above hands?
    What happened to these temples when they periodically went out of use?
    • Adobe relief, Temple of the Crossed Hands
    • Site (Kotosh)
    • Cultural tradition (same name)
    • What type of rites went on in Kotosh tradition shrines (burning of materals for sacrifices)
    • Date (Preceramic)
    • Location (Highlands)
    • What crossed arms might represent (complementarity/union of opposite forces in the universe, moietieson the level of society)
    • How context supports symbolism (relief is in one of two temples at site, is paired with another relief of hands of slightly different size within same temple)
    • What was placed in niche above hands (sacrificed animals (guinnea pigs, llamas) and clay figures)
    • What happened to these temples when they periodically went out of use (buried in the construction of the next temple)

  3. Date?
    Culture?
    What type of building this frieze was found in?
    Material?
    What central face represents?
    What projection from nose may represent?
    Significance of spiders?
    • Adobe frieze from Garagay
    • Date (Initial Period)
    • Culture (Manchay)
    • What type of building this frieze was found in (temple on top of pyramid)
    • Material (adobe)
    • What central face represents (spider (harbingers of fertility) with jaguar or crocodile-like fangs, in web)
    • What projection from nose may represent (mucus discharge from hallucinogenic snuff or the mouth parts of a spider)
    • Significance of spiders (associated with rainy season, used by later Inkas for divination)

  4. Site?
    Location?
    Date?
    Different interpretations of frieze?
    What decapitated heads and chopped up bodies may represent?
    Technique of carving?
    Significance of missing/closed eyes from Ray’s lecture?
    Toad eggs related with ___?
    • Cerro Sechin
    • Site (Cerro Sechin)
    • Location (North Highlands)
    • Date (Initial Period)
    • Different interpretations of frieze (record of a real battle, shamanic initiations, and/or human sacrifice)
    • What decapitated heads and chopped up bodies may represent (trophies of war, the experience of death, dismemberment and rebirth in a shamanic initiation (not literal))
    • Technique of carving (sunk relief)
    • It is a modern reconstruction of the building and not necessarily completely accurate
    • Significance of missing/closed eyes from Ray’s lecture (eyes represent the soul/reincarnation)
    • Toad eggs related with shamanism

  5. Site?
    Date?
    Culture?
    Attributes of human figure?
    What he may represent?
    Mythological feature of jaguar?
    Where most of the animals represented at the site come from although site itself is in the highlands?
    Types of animals that are represented?
    Possible relationship between two sets of images?
    • Circular sunken plaza
    • Site (Chavín de Huantar)
    • Date (Early Horizon)
    • Culture (Chavin)
    • Attributes of human figure (hair/jaguar tail headdress represented as snakes—know what kennings are, harpy eagle talons on hands and feet, jaguar mouth, carrying hallucinogenic San Pedro cactus)
    • What he may represent (shaman in transformation and/or one of the site’s priest-rulers in costume)
    • Mythological feature of jaguar (has eagle claws for feet) Where most of the animals represented at the site come from (Rainforest, eastern jungles, Amazon region) although site itself is in the highlands
    • Types of animals that are represented (top predators, creatures that are able to cross between different environments, shamanic alter-egos or animal companions)
    • Possible relationship between two sets of images (may represent stages of transformation from human to jaguar)

  6. Culture?
    Site?
    Date?
    Where it is located?
    How it may have been used?
    What form of stone represents?
    Features of Chavín style shown here?
    What animals are referenced in the mouth and face?
    What gesture may represent?
    What channel at top of monolith may have been used for?
    • The Lanzón
    • Culture (Chavin)
    • Site (Chavin de Huantar)
    • Date (Early Horizon)
    • Where it is located (in chamber in gallery inside temple) How it may have been used (person speaking in chamber on top can make image seem to talk, so may be an oracle) What form of stone represents (foot plow (agricultural influence), central axis of universe)
    • Features of Chavín style shown here (pendant irises, kennings (hair portrayed as snakes), snarling fanged mouth, secondary faces, wrapped around stone and difficult to read, religious subject matter, fills all spaces)
    • What animals are referenced in the mouth and face(jaguar, caiman/crocodile, snake)
    • What gesture may represent (one hand up one hand down: union of opposites in universe, up and down directions on central axis)
    • What channel at top of monolith may have been used for (pouring offerings over stone)

  7. Date?
    Site?
    Culture?
    Where these were situated?
    What complete series of head may represent?
    Problem with this interpretation?
    What lines on cheeks might represent?
    What may be coming out of nose?
    Why eyes are bulging?
    • Tenoned stone head
    • Date (500-200 BC)
    • Site (Chavin de Huantar)
    • Culture (Chavin)
    • Where these were situated (inserted into the exterior walls of the temple 30 feet up)
    • What complete series of heads may represent (stages of transformation of shaman into jaguar)
    • Problem with this interpretation (only one head foundstill in original place)
    • What lines on cheeks might represent(jaguar whiskers/snout)
    • What may be coming out of nose (mucus discharge from using hallucinogenic snuff)
    • Why eyes are bulging (may be way of showing an altered state of consciousness)

  8. Site?
    Culture?
    Date?
    Features of style?
    What beliefs/practices these reversals may be associated with?
    What this deity is called?
    What staffs may represent?
    What he may represent standing? And inverted/descending?
    What Peter Roe thinks he is generally a god of?
    • The Raimondi Stela
    • Site (Chavin de Huantar) 
    • Culture (Chavin)
    • Date (Early Horizon or within Rick’s or Burger’s dates for the site-- hard to say more precisely)
    • Features of style (same as 23 and 28, plus anatropic—forms a different image when inverted)
    • What beliefs or practices these reversals may be associated with (shamanism, use of psychedelics)
    • What this deity is called (Staff God)
    • What staffs may represent (bundles of vegetation or spears)
    • What he may represent standing (earth) and inverted, descending (sky)
    • What Peter Roe thinks he is generally a god of (war)

  9. Culture?
    Site?
    Date?
    Medium?
    What god is shown?
    How this one is different from the ones at Chavin?
    What this may represent?
    Features of this art style?
    What happens when image is rotated on side?
    What these textiles may have been used for?
    • Painted textile from Karwa
    • Culture (Chavin)
    • Site (Karwa (South Coast)) 
    • Date (Early Horizon)
    • Medium (painted textile)
    • What god is shown (Staff God)
    • How this one is different from the ones at Chavín (female)
    • What this may represent (new oracle “franchise” or branch at Karwa had “sister/wife/daughter” relationship to the original oracle center at Chavín de Huantar, or may be female aspect of a hermaphroditic god)
    • Features of this art style (anatropic image)
    • What happens when image is rotated on side (breasts and vagina dentate become eyes and mouth of caiman, legs become serpent-like tongues, so this is also an anatropic image)
    • What these textiles may have been used for (“bible” or “catechism” for spreading Chavín religion, portable substitutes for reliefs in a new oracle temple)

  10. Culture?
    Date?
    Decoration technique?
    What phase/site this pottery style is associated with?
    Reason for name "Occulate Being?"
    Why name is not accurate?
    Possible basis for forms extending around the face?
    • Painted Ceramic Mask of the “Oculate Being”
    • Culture (Paracas)
    • Date (Early Horizon to Early Intermediate Period)
    • Decoration technique (post-fire resin painting)
    • What phase/site this pottery style is associated with (Cavernas)
    • Reason for name “Oculate Being” (the huge eyes)
    • What the real-life models for the eyes might be (jaguars, owls)
    • Why name is not accurate (the large eyes are attributes of several different supernatural beings, not just one)
    • Possible basis for forms extending around the face (sun’s rays, spider legs, snakes)

  11. Culture?
    Date?
    Whaat burying the dead in bundles may symbolize?
    What body is seated in?
    Necropolis or Cavernas bundle?
    Relationship between mouth ornament and textie images?
    Who excavated these mummies?
    • Mummy Bundle
    • Culture (Paracas)
    • Date (Early Horizon to Early Intermediate Period)
    • What burying the dead in bundles may symbolize/represent (seeds, in hope the deceased will be reborn)
    • What body is seated in (basket)
    • Know that this is a Necropolis, not Cavernas bundle
    • Relationship between mouth ornament and textile images (similar ornaments are shown worn by the figures shown on the embroidered garments)
    • Who excavated these mummies (Julio Tello)

  12. Culture?
    Date?
    Context?
    Features of style?
    What type of info may have been represented in this style?
    Relation in time to Block Color Style?
    • Linear Style Embroidery
    • Culture (Paracas)
    • Date (Early Horizon to Early Intermediate Period) 
    • Context (found in mummy bundles)
    • Features of style (abstract forms, outlines formed by single stitch)
    • What type of information may have been represented in this style (abstract symbolic concepts or secret knowledge)
    • Relation in time to Block Color style (overlapped in time with it since both are sometimes used to wrap the same mummy bundle)

  13. Culture?
    Date?
    Style of textiles?
    Features of style?
    Characteristics of this kind of figure besides pose?
    What these figures may represent?
    Frame's interpretation of their position?
    What happens to figures later in Frame’s proposed sequence?
    • Block Color embroidery with “falling” figures
    • Culture (Paracas)
    • Date (Early Intermediate Period)
    • Style of textiles
    • Features of style (Outlined, curvilinear figures wholse elaborate costumes were solidly filled in with brightly colored stitches)
    • Characteristics of this kind of figure besides pose (long hair, holding fans/knives/mushrooms, emaciated bodies and features)
    • What these figures may represent (shamans in trance and dancing or flying, the newly dead before their transformation into ancestors),
    • Frame’s interpretation of their position (bent back exposes neck and torso, like an animal in submissive pose or sacrificial victim)
    • What happens to figures later in Frame’s proposed sequence (become predators with animal attributes rather than prey, reflecting full transformation into ancestors)

  14. Culture?
    Date?
    Where idea of action/narrative scenes, running figures, and form of profile faces came from?
    What scene shows?
    Significance of trophy heads to the Nasca?
    • Double spout and bridge vessel with decapitation scene
    • Culture (Nasca)
    • Date (Early Intermediate Period)
    • This example is Late Nasca
    • Where idea of action/narrative scenes, running figures, and form of profile faces came from (the Moche)
    • What scene shows (battle with warriors taking trophy heads)
    • Significance of trophy heads to the Nasca (symbolic fruit/seeds to feed the earth and ancestors in return for fertility)

  15. Culture?
    Date?
    Technique?
    Name for creature represented?
    What it may represent?
    What supports impersonator theory?
    Problem with this idea?
    What kind of animal it seems to have the features of?
    Where this figure ultimately originated?
    • Anthropomorphic Mythic Being (AMB)
    • Culture (Nasca)
    • Date (Early Intermediate Period)
    • Technique (slip-painting)
    • Name for creature represented (?)
    • What it may represent (either a deity or a shaman impersonating one)
    • What supports impersonator theory (diadems and mouth ornaments like the ones worn by this figure have been found in Nasca burials)
    • Problem with this idea (these finds were looted and we don’t know if they contained the whole set of costume elements)
    • What kind of animal it seems to have the features of (feline)
    • Where this figure ultimately originated (Paracas Block Color textiles)

  16. Culture?
    Date?
    Term for these drawings?
    Technique?
    Current theories?
    Reasons for identifying them as work of this culture?
    • Nasca Lines
    • Culture (Nasca)
    • Date (Early Intermediate Period)
    • Term for these drawings (geoglyphs)
    • Technique (removing oxidized surface gravel to reveal lighter gravel underneath)
    • Current theories (ritual pathways and dance areas, used in pilgrimages to mountains, offerings to mountain water deities, markers of underground water sources)
    • Reasons for identifying them as work of this culture (pottery found on the lines, carbon dating of associated wooden posts, animals in geoglyphs are same animals in same style as appear on Nasca ceramics)
  17.  or similar
    Culture?
    Date?
    Type of clay used for Recuay pottery?
    Two types of painted decoration?
    Where these are found?
    Problem with interpreting them?
    What part of body is emphasized by modeling?
    Possible reasons why?
    Probable gender of central figure?
    • Recuay effigy vessel
    • Culture (Recuay)
    • Date (Early Intermediate Period)
    • Type of clay used for Recuay pottery (kaolin - fine white clay)
    • Two types of painted decoration (red slip paint, organic post-fire black paint)
    • Where these are found (tombs)
    • Problem with interpreting them (most looted and removed from context)
    • What part of body is emphasized by modeling (head)
    • Possible reasons why (head source of regeneration/fertility)
    • Probable gender of central figure (male)

  18. Culture?
    Date?
    Medium?
    Features of Moche style it shows?
    Identify what is going on and the major figures on top?
    Relationship of figures to archaeological finds at Huaca de la Luna?  Sipan? San Jose de Moro?
    Probable explanation?
    • The Sacrifice or Presentation Scene/Theme
    • Culture (Moche)
    • Date (Early Intermediate)
    • Medium (fineline painting on ceramic)
    • Features of Moche style it shows (emphasis on narrative and action, distinguishing between individual figures)
    • Identify what is going on here and the major figures on top (Victims' blood (lower register, right) is offered to the Lord of Sipan (upper register, left) nu the Owl Priest (upper register, left center) with the Priestess (upper register, right center) in attendance)
    • Relationship of figures to archaeological finds at Huaca de la Luna (sacrificial victims with throats cut), Sipán (burials of males dressed like the Warrior Priest and Owl Priest), and San Jose de Moro (woman dressed as priestess)
    • Probable explanation (these figures were roles impersonated by Moche elites at a number of sites, rather than historical individuals)

  19. Site?
    Culture?
    Date?
    What was on top?
    Construction material?
    Relationship to mountain of Cerro Blanco?
    Reasons for periodic rebuilding?
    What was found in plazas between the structure and the mountain?
    • Huaca de la Luna
    • Site (Cerro Blanco) 
    • Culture (Moche) 
    • Date (Early Intermediate Period) 
    • What was on top (temples accessed by ramps)Construction material (adobe brick)
    • Relationship to mountain of Cerro Blanco (built next to it and mirrors it in shape)
    • Reasons for periodic rebuilding (damage from El Niño events, death of successive priests adding to power of ancestors)
    • What was found in plazas between the structure and the mountain (remains of sacrificial victims, some killed during El Niño weather events)

  20. Culture?
    Date?
    Site?
    Which tomb this is?
    Which figure from the Sacrifie Scene is the Lord dressed as?
    Costume elements that match the painted figure?
    • Reconstruction of Burial 1/tomb of the Warrior Priest/Lord of Sipán
    • Culture (Moche) 
    • Date (Early Intermediate Period)
    • Site (Sipan)
    • Which tomb this is (1)
    • Which figure from the Sacrifice Scene is the Lord dressed as (Warrior Priest)
    • Costume elements that match the painted figure (headdress, back flaps, scepter/mace)

  21. Site?
    Culture?
    Date?
    Which burial they are from?
    Materials?
    What the central human figure represents?
    What costume features identify him?
    Relationship between this scene and tomb itself?
    Symbolism of deer on 82?
    • Lord of Sipán’s ear ornaments
    • Site (Tomb 1) 
    • Culture (Moche) 
    • Date (Early Intermediate Period) 
    • Which burial they are from (Sipan's burial)
    • Materials (gold, turquoise)
    • What the central human figure represents (the Warrior Priest/Lord of Sipán himself)
    • What costume features identify him (crescent headdress ornament,scepter/mace)
    • Relationship between this scene and tomb itself (contained two human attendants buried alongside the ruler, just like two attendants are shown here)
    • Symbolism of deer on 82 (deerhunting; a metaphor for taking captives for sacrifice
  22.  (or similar happy portrait)
    Culture?
    Date?
    Area?
    Significance?
    Technique?
    What different portraits of same individual sometimes show?
    • Portrait vessels
    • Culture (Moche) 
    • Date (Early Intermediate Period) 
    • Area (southern Moche only)
    • Significance (only true portraits made in ancient Peru
    • Technique (basic form from molds, details added by hand)
    • What different portraits of same individual sometimes show (aging, acquiring of battle scars, sometimes also winding up as captives for sacrifice)

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