PSY 220 Ch. 9: Conducting Experiments

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ralejo
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PSY 220 Ch. 9: Conducting Experiments
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2012-11-03 19:57:48
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Conducting Experiments Needham PSY 220 Research Methods
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Conducting Experiments Needham PSY 220 Research Methods
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  1. Behavior measure
    • Direct observations of behaviors.
    • Consider rate, reaction time, and duration of behavior.
  2. Ceiling effect
    Failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was too easy.
  3. Confederate
    A person posing as a participant in an experiment who is actually part of the experiment.
  4. Demand characteristics
    Cues that inform the subject how he or she is expected to behave.
  5. Double-blind experiment
    A procedure wherein both the experimenter and the participant are unaware of whether the participant is in the experimental (treatment_ or the control condition.
  6. Electroencephalogram
    • EEG
    • A measure of the electrical activity of the brain.
  7. Electromyogram
    • EMG
    • A measure of the electrical activity of muscles, including muscle tension.
  8. Expectancy-effects (experimenter bias)
    Any intentional or unintentional influence that the experimenter exerts on subjects to confirm the hypothesis under investigation.
  9. Filler items
    Items included in a questionnaire measure to help disguise the true purpose of the measure.
  10. Floor effect
    Failure of a measure to detect a difference because it was too difficult.
  11. Functional MRI
    • Magnetic resonance imaging uses a magnet to obtain scans of structures of the brain
    • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides information on the amount of activity in different brain structures.
  12. Galvanic skin response
    • GSR
    • The electrical conductance of the skin, which changes when sweating occurs.
  13. Manipulation check
    A measure used to determine whether the manipulation of the independent variable has had its intended effect on a subject.
  14. Manipulation strength
    A strong manipulation maximizes the differences between the two groups and increases the chances that the independent variable will have a statistically significant effect on the dependent variable.
  15. MRI
    • Provides an image of a individual's brain structure
    • Allows scientists to compare the brain structure of individuals with a particular condition (e.g., a cognitive impairment, schizophrenia, or attention deficit hyperactive disorder)
  16. Physiological measure
    • Recordings of responses of the body
    • Examples:
    • Galvanic skin response (GSR)
    • Electromyogram (EMG)
    • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  17. Pilot study
    • A small-scale study conducted prior to conducting an actual experiment
    • Designed to test and refine procedures
  18. Placebo group
    In drug research, a group given an inert substance to assess the psychological effect of receiving a treatment.
  19. Self-report
    • Can be used to measure attitudes, liking for someone, judgements about someone's personality characteristics, intended behaviors, emotional states, attributions about why someone performed well or poorly on a task, confidence in one's judgements, and many other aspects of human thought and behavior.
    • Rating scales with descriptive anchors (endpoints) are most commonly used.
  20. Sensitivity
    The ability of a measure to detect differences between groups.
  21. Single-blind experiment
    The participant is unaware of whether a placebo or the actual drug is being administered.
  22. Staged manipulation
    • Event manipulation
    • Staging events during the experiment in order to manipulate the independent variable successfully.
  23. Straightforward manipulation
    • Manipulating variables with instructions and stimulus representations.
    • Stimuli may be presented verbally, in written form, via videotape, or with a computer.
  24. Distinguish between straightforward and staged manipulation of an independent variable.
    • Straightforward Manipulation:
    • Changes in conditions that the participant is exposed to
    • For visual stimulation, stories, for audio

    • Staged manipulation:
    • Create particular effect on participant prior to testing them
    • -Ex: Millgram Experiment
    • •Person being shocked was a confederate
  25. Describe the three types of dependent variables: self-report, behavioral, and physiological.
    • Self-report:
    • Can be used to measure attitudes, liking for someone, judgements about someone's personality characteristics, intended behaviors, emotional states, attributions about why someone performed well or poorly on a task, confidence in one's judgements, and many other aspects of human thought and behavior.
    • Rating scales with descriptive anchors (endpoints) are most commonly used.

    • Behavioral:
    • Direct observations of behaviors.
    • Consider rate, reaction time, and duration of behavior.

    • Physiological:
    • Recordings of responses of the body
    • Examples:
    • Galvanic skin response (GSR)
    • Electromyogram (EMG)
    • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  26. Discuss sensitivity of a dependent variable, contrasting floor effects and ceiling effects.
    • Sensitivity:
    • The ability of a measure to detect differences between groups.

    • Floor effects:
    • A task is so difficult that hardly anyone can perform well.

    • Ceiling effects:
    • The independent variable appears to have o effect on the dependent measure only because participants quickly reach the maximum performance level.
  27. Describe ways to control participant expectations and experimenter expectations.
    • Participant expectations:
    • Limit demand characteristics (Cues that inform the subject how he or she is expected to behave)
    • Create a placebo group (In drug research, a group given an inert substance to assess the psychological effect of receiving a treatment.)

    • Experimenter expectations:
    • Experimenters should be well trained and should practice behaving consistently with all participants.
    • Single-blind experiment (The participant is unaware of whether a placebo or the actual drug is being administered.)
    • Double-blind experiment (A procedure wherein both the experimenter and the participant are unaware of whether the participant is in the experimental (treatment_ or the control condition.)
  28. List the reasons for conducting pilot studies.
    • Reveals whether:
    • Participants understand the instructions
    • The total experimental setting seems plausible
    • Any confusing questions are being asked

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