Chemistry Chapter Four

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Chemistry Chapter Four
2012-11-10 14:35:06
Exam III

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  1. Precipitation reaction
    process in which soluble ionic reactants yield an insoluble solid product that drops out of the solution, thereby removing some of the dissolved ions
  2. Acid-base neutralization reaction
    process in which an acid reacts with a base to yield water plus an ionic compound called a salt
  3. Oxidation-reduction reactions
    process in which one or more electrons are transferred between reaction partners
  4. Only when a solution contains __ will it produce an electric current.
    ions (charged)
  5. What are electrolytes
    Substances such as NaCl or KBr, which dissolve in water to produce conductiong solutions of ionsĀ 
  6. What are nonelectrolytes?
    substance which do not produce ions in aqueous solutions (sucrose/ ethyl alcohol)
  7. Strong electrolytes vs. weak electrolytes
    • Strong: compounds that dissociate to a large extent into ions when dissolved in water
    • Weak: compounds that dissociate to a small extent
  8. What are nonelectrolytes?
    • H2O
    • alcohols
    • sucrose and organic compounds
  9. Can bare hydrogen react on its own?
    • as a bare hydrogen nucleus (a proton) with no electron nearby, H+ is much too reactive to exist by itself.
    • They give the hydronium ion, H3O+
  10. What names go with the contribution of H ions?
    • monoprotic (H+)
    • diprotic acid (2 H+)
    • triprotic acid (3+)
  11. What are oxoacids?
    they contain oxygen in addition to hydrogen and another element
  12. What is an activity series?
    series that ranks the elements in order of their reducing ability in aqueous solutions based on a succession of different reactions
  13. What is combustion?
    burning of a fuel by oxidation with oxygen in air
  14. What is bleaching?
    uses redox reactions to decolorize or lighten colored materials
  15. What is metallurgy?
    the extraction and purfication of metals from their ores
  16. What is corrosion?
    the deterioration of a metal by oxidation