PSY 220 Ch. 11: Single-Case, Quasi-Experimental, and Developmental Research

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PSY 220 Ch. 11: Single-Case, Quasi-Experimental, and Developmental Research
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2012-11-03 21:51:11
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Single Case Quasi Experimental Developmental Research PSY 220 Needham
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Single-Case, Quasi-Experimental, and Developmental Research PSY 220 Needham
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  1. Baseline
    In a single case design, the subject's behavior during a control period before introduction of the experimental manipulation.
  2. Cohort
    • A group of people born at about the same time and exposed to the same societal events
    • Cohort effects are confounded with age in a cross-sectional study.
  3. Cohort effects
  4. Control series design
    An extension of the interrupted time series quasi-experimental design in which there is a comparison or control group
  5. Cross-sectional method
    • A developmental research method in which persons of different ages are studied at only one point in time
    • Conceptions ally similarly to an Independent group
  6. Efficiency assessment
    • Once it is shown that a program does have its intended effect, researchers must determine whether it is worth the resources it consumes
    • The cost of the program must be weighed against its benefits.
  7. History effects
    As a threat to the internal validity of an experiment, refers to any outside event that is not part
  8. Instrument decay
    As a threat to internal validity, the possibility that a change in the characteristics of the measurement instrument, including human observers, is responsible for the results.
  9. Interrupted time series design
    • A design in which the effectiveness of a treatment is determined by examining a series of measurements made over an extended time period both before and after the treatment is introduced.
    • The treatment is not introduced at a random point in time
  10. Longitudinal method
    • A developmental research method in which the same persons are observed repeatedly as they grow older
    • Conceptually similar to a repeated measures design
  11. Maturation effects
    As a threat to internal validity, the possiblity that any naturally occurring change within the individual is responsible for the results
  12. Multiple baseline design
    Observing behavior before and after a maniupalation under multiple circumstances (across different individuals, different behaviors, or different settings.)
  13. Needs assessment
    Ask whether there are problems that need to be addressed in a target population
  14. Nonequivalent control group design
    A quasi-experimental design in which nonequivalent groups of subjects participate in the different experimental groups, and there is no pretest.
  15. Nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design
    A quasi-experimental design in which nonequivalent groups are used, but a pretest allows assessment of equivalency and pretest-posttest changes.
  16. One-group posttest-only design
    • A quasi-experimental design that has no control group and no pretest comparison
    • A very poor design in terms of internal validity.
  17. One-group pretest-posttest design
    A quasi-experimental design in which the effect of an independent variable is inferred from the pretest-posttest difference in a single group.
  18. Outcome evaluation
    • Impact assessment
    • Evaluation researcher must devise a way of measuring the outcome and then study the impact of the program on the outcome measure.
  19. Process evaluation
    • Program monitoring
    • Evaluation researcher monitors it to determine whether:
    • it is reaching the target population
    • it is attracting enough clients
    • the staff is providing the planned services
  20. Program evaluation
    Research designed to assess procedures (e.g., social reforms, innovations) that are designed to produce certain changes or outcomes in a target population
  21. Program theory assessment
    The collaboration of researchers, service providers, and prospective clients of the program to determine that the proposed program does in fact address the needs of the target population in appropriate ways.
  22. Propensity score matching
    A method of pairing individuals for assignment to a treatment and control condition based upon a combination of scores on participant variables.
  23. Quasi-experimental design
    A type of haphazard sample conducted to obtain predetermined types of individuals for the sample.
  24. Regression toward the mean (statistical regression)
    Principle that extreme scores on a variable tend to be closer to the mean when a second measurement is made.
  25. Reversal design
    • A single case design in which the treatment is introduced after a baseline period and then withdrawn during a second baseline period
    • It may be extended by adding a second introduction of the treatment
    • Sometimes called a "withdrawal" design
  26. Selection differences
    • Differences in the type of subjects who make up each group in an experimental design
    • This situation occurs when participants elect which group they are to be assigned to
  27. Sequential method
    A combination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal design to study developmental research questions.
  28. Single-case experimental design
    An experiment in which the effect of the independent variable is assessed using data from a single participant.
  29. Testing effects
    A threat to internal validity in which taking a pretest changes behavior without any effect on the independent variable.
  30. Describe single-case experimental designs and discuss reasons to use this design.
    • An experiment in which the effect of the independent variable is assessed using data from a single participant.
    • Reasons:
    • Determine whether an experimental manipulation had an effect on a single research participant
  31. Describe the five types of evaluations involved in program evaluation research: needs assessment, program assessment, process evaluation, outcome evaluation, and efficiency assessment.
    • Needs assessment
    • Ask whether there are problems that need to be addressed in a target population

    • Program theory assessment
    • The collaboration of researchers, service providers, and prospective clients of the program to determine that the proposed program does in fact address the needs of the target population in appropriate ways.

    • Process evaluation
    • Program monitoring
    • Evaluation researcher monitors it to determine whether:
    • it is reaching the target population
    • it is attracting enough clients
    • the staff is providing the planned services

    • Outcome evaluation
    • Impact assessment
    • Evaluation researcher must devise a way of measuring the outcome and then study the impact of the program on the outcome measure.

    • Efficiency assessment
    • Once it is shown that a program does have its intended effect, researchers must determine whether it is worth the resources it consumes
    • The cost of the program must be weighed against its benefits.
  32. Describe the one-group posttest-only design.
    • One-group posttest-only design
    • A quasi-experimental design that has no control group and no pretest comparison
    • A very poor design in terms of internal validity.
  33. Describe the one-group pretest-posttest design and the associated threats to internal validity that may occur: history, maturation, testing, instrument decay, and regression toward the mean.
    • One-group pretest-posttest design
    • A quasi-experimental design in which the effect of an independent variable is inferred from the pretest-posttest difference in a single group.

    • History
    • As a threat to the internal validity of an experiment, refers to any outside event that is not part

    • Maturation
    • As a threat to internal validity, the possiblity that any naturally occurring change within the individual is responsible for the results

    • Testing
    • A threat to internal validity in which taking a pretest changes behavior without any effect on the independent variable.

    • Instrument decay
    • As a threat to internal validity, the possibility that a change in the characteristics of the measurement instrument, including human observers, is responsible for the results.

    • Regression toward the mean
    • Principle that extreme scores on a variable tend to be closer to the mean when a second measurement is made.
  34. Describe the nonequivalent control group design and nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design, and discuss the advantages of having a control group.
    • Nonequivalent control group design
    • A quasi-experimental design in which nonequivalent groups of subjects participate in the different experimental groups, and there is no pretest.

    • Nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design
    • A quasi-experimental design in which nonequivalent groups are used, but a pretest allows assessment of equivalency and pretest-posttest changes.

    • Advantages of having a control group:
    • We can see whether the groups were the same on the pretest
    • If not equivalent, we can look at changes in scores from the pretest to the posttest.
  35. Distinguish between the interrupted time series design and control series design.
    • Interrupted time series design
    • A design in which the effectiveness of a treatment is determined by examining a series of measurements made over an extended time period both before and after the treatment is introduced.
    • The treatment is not introduced at a random point in time

    • Control series design
    • An extension of the interrupted time series quasi-experimental design in which there is a comparison or control group
  36. Describe cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential research designs, including the advantages and disadvantages of each design.
    • Cross-sectional method
    • A developmental research method in which persons of different ages are studied at only one point in time
    • Conceptions ally similarly to an Independent group
    • Advantages:
    • Disadvantages:

    • Longitudinal method
    • A developmental research method in which the same persons are observed repeatedly as they grow older
    • Conceptually similar to a repeated measures design
    • Advantages:
    • Disadvantages:

    • Sequential method
    • A combination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal design to study developmental research questions.
    • Advantages:
    • Disadvantages:

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