IB Psychology

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IB Psychology
2010-05-05 23:10:58
Psychology IB Psychology

Basic Vocab, Assumptions, and Theories of IB Psychology
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  1. Social Learning Theory
    States that we learn by observing and imitating others.
  2. Self Serving Bias
    A readiness to percieve oneself favorably.
  3. Long-Term Memory
    Relatively permantent and limitless store-house of the memory system. Information stored here is held in semantic form.
  4. Lesion
    Destroyed Tissue.
  5. Ingroup Bias
    The tendency to favor one's own group.
  6. Hippocampus
    Helps prepare explicit memories for storage.
  7. Groupthink
    The tendency of a close-knit group to emphasize consensus at the expense of critical thinking and rational decision making.
  8. Group Polarization
    The tendency for a dominant point of view in a group to be strengthened to a more extreme position after a group discussion.
  9. Frontal Lobes
    Involved in speaking, muscle movements and in making plans and judgements.
  10. Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon
    The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a large request.
  11. Corpus Callosum
    Carries messages between the two hemispheres of the brain.
  12. Conditioned Stimulus
    An originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned response.
  13. Conditioned Response
    The learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus.
  14. Circadian Rythm
    The biological clock; Regular bodily rythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
  15. Cerebral Cortex
    The body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
  16. Cerebellum
    Helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance.
  17. Attribution Theory
    We tend to give a causal explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the other person's disposition.
  18. Assimilation
    Interpreting one's new experience in terms of existing schemas.
  19. Amygdala
    Linked to emotion and emotional memory.
  20. Negative Reinforcement
    The termination of a nuicence as a resault of behavior.
  21. Positive Reinforcement
    When a desirable consequence occurs as a resault of behavior.
  22. What is the Difference Between Operant and Classical Conditioning?
    • In operant conditioning, the subject's behavior depends on what follows- it's learning the consequences of a particular behavior.
    • In classical conditioning, a stimulus is paired with an involuntary response; the subject's behavior depends on what preceeds it.
  23. Aversion Therapy
    Aims to remove undesirable responses to certain stimuli by associating them with other aversive stimuli in the hope that the undesirable responses will be avoided in the future.
  24. Systematic Desensitisation
    Aims to extinguish the fear response of a phobia and substitute a relaxation response to the conditioned stimulus gradually.
  25. Implosion/ Flooding
    Forced reality testing aimed to produce the extinction of a phobic's fear by the continual and dramatic presentation of the phobic object or situation.
  26. Short-Term Memory
    A memory system that stores a limited amount of information in phonetic form for a brief period.
  27. Adoption Studies
    Studies in which researchers examine trait similarities between adopted children and there biological and adoptive parents to figure out wether that trait might be inherited.
  28. Attitudes
    Evaluations people make about objects, ideas, events, or other people.
  29. Alpha Waves
    The type of brain waves present when a person is very relaxed or meditating.
  30. Beta Waves
    The type of brain waves present when a person is awake and alert.
  31. Classical Conditioning
    A type of learning in which a subject comes to respond to a neural stimulus as he would to another stimulus by learning to associate the two stimuli.
  32. Defence Mechanisms
    Behaviors that protect people from anxiety.
  33. Delta Waves
    The type of brain waves present when a person is deeply asleep.
  34. Situational Attribution
    An inference that a person's behavior is due to situational factors.
  35. Learned Helplessness
    A tendency to give up passively in the face of unavoidable stressors.
  36. Melatonin
    A hormone that regulates the sleep cycle.
  37. Memory
    The capacity for storing and retrieving information.
  38. Normative Social Influence
    An individual's tendency to conform because of a nees to be accepted or not rejected by a group.
  39. Misinformation Effect
    The tendency for recollections of events to be distorted by information given after the event occured.
  40. Obedience
    Compliance with commands given by an authority figure.
  41. Operant Conditioning
    A type of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences.
  42. Outgroup
    A group to which one does not belong.
  43. Prejudice
    A negative belief or feeling about a particular group of individuals.
  44. Proactive Interference
    The forgetting of new information because of previously learned information.
  45. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
    A stage of deep sleep in which brain wave activity is similar to that in the waking state.
  46. REM Rebound Effect
    The tendency to spend more time in the REM stage of sleep after a period of REM sleep deprivation.
  47. Recall
    The process of remembering without any external cues.
  48. Recognition
    The process of identifying learned information by using externall cues.
  49. Rehersal
    The process of practicing material in order to remember it.
  50. Retention
    The proportion of learned information that is retained or remembered.
  51. Retrieval
    The process of getting information our of memory.
  52. Retrieval Cues
    Stimuli that help to get information out of memory.
  53. Retroactive Interference
    Forgetting of old information because of newly learned information.
  54. Schema
    A mental model of an object or event that includes knowledge about it as well as beliefs and expectations.
  55. Seratonin
    A neurotransmitter involved in sleep, appetite, agression, impulsivity, sensory perseption, pain supression, and mood.
  56. Stereotypes
    Beliefs about people based on their membershi in a particular group.
  57. Theta Waves
    The type of brain waves present when a person is lightly asleep.
  58. Unconditioned Response
    A naturally occuring response that happens without previous conditioning.
  59. Unconditioned Stimulus
    A stimulus that evokes an innate response.
  60. Aggression
    Physcal or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
  61. Theories of Agression
    • 1. Genetic- Behavior tends to run in families.
    • 2. Neural- There is less activity in the frontal lobe, corpus collosum, and left hemisphere
    • 3. Neurochemical- High levels of testosterone has been linked to agression.
  62. Assumptions of the Social Perspective
    • 1. All behavior occurs in a social context, even when nobody else is physically present.
    • 2. A major influence on other people's behavior, thought processes, and emotions are other people and the society they have created.
  63. Assumptions of the Biological Perspective
    • 1.All that is psychological is first physiological. The mind is in the brain so all thoughts, feelings and behaviors have a biological cause.
    • 2. Psychology should investigate the brain, neurvous system, endocrine system, neurochemistry, and genes.
    • 3. Much of behavior will have a genetic basis because human genes have evolved over millions of years to adapt physiology and behavior to the environment.
  64. Assumptions of the Learning Perspective
    • 1. The majority of all behavior is learned from the environment after birth. Behavior is determined by the environment since we are merely the total of our past learning experiences.
    • 2. Only observable behaviors should be studied. Animals can be studied and the findings applied to humans, as animals only differ in the complexity of their behavior.
  65. Environmental Determinism
    Learning from the environment writes upon the blank slate of our minds at birth to cause behavior. Deterministic laws of learning can predict and control the future.
  66. Assumptions of the Cognitive Perspective
    • 1. The study of internal mental processes is important in understanding behavior. Cognitive processes actively organize and manipulate the information we recieve- Humans do not just passively respond to the environment.
    • 2. Humans, like computers, are information processors: regardless of our harware, both percieve, interpret, and respong to information.
  67. Conformity
    Yeilding to group pressure, either real (involving the physical presence of others) or imagined (involving the pressures of social norms).
  68. Social Identity Theory
    The tendency of all humans to categorize themselves into groups.
  69. Conditions that Strengthen Conformity
    • 1. One is made to feel insecure
    • 2. Group has at least three people
    • 3. Group is unanimous
    • 4. One admires the group
    • 5. No prior comitment to any response
    • 6. The group observes one's behavior
    • 7. One's culture strongly encourages respect of social standards
  70. Informative Social Influence
    We accept other's opinions about reality.
  71. Milgram's Agency Theory
    We see ourselves as agents of a larger group. In order to maintain society, we must all give up some of our freedom, at least some of the time.
  72. Factors Affecting Obedience
    • 1. Person giving orders is close
    • 2. Ther person giving orders is supported by an institution
    • 3. Victim is dehumanized or at a distance
    • 4. No models for defiance