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What is agnosia?
loss of ability to recognise objects and symbols thru a particular sensory channel eg vision
What is agraphia?
inability to write
WHat is alexia?
inability to read
what is alteplase?
drug used for throbolysis
what is anosognosia?
- person is unable to recognize their own impairments or lack of abilities.
- FOr example person may deny having hemiparesis or an inability to stand unsupporte. Renders pt unrealistic about their outcome and safety risk
what is an anticoagulant?
a group of drugs used to reduce the risk of clots- thins the plasma
what is an antiplatelet?
- prevents clots by stopping platelets sticking together
what is aphasia?
- failure to understand (receptive aphasia)
- in ability to use verbal expression (expresive aphasia)
- this is due to the impairment to the dominant cerebral hemisphere
- Global aphasia0 inability to either understand or synthesize language
what is apraxia?
- inability to carry out a skilled urposeful movements either on command or automatically
- - can be due to motor weakness, sensory loss or incoordination
- - person might be willing and hysically able to perform the task but cannot execute it
what is ideational apraxia?
- - inability to perform an activity consisting of a complex series of actions either automatically or on command
- - failure to comprehend, develop or retain the concept of what is desired
what is ideomotor apraxia?
- - there is no difficulty in formulating the idea of the act to be carried out but the pt is unable to execute the activity on command.
- - habitual (habit) tasks may be able to be carried out automatically
What is constructional apraxia?
- - impairement in producing designs in 2 or 3 dimensions by coping, drawing or constructing on command or spontaneously
- - fuctionally difficult to perform purposeful acts while using objects in the environment
what isdressing apraxia?
pt is unable to relate spatial forms of clothes to that of the body
what is asterognosis?
- inability to recognise objects by feel
- requires normal light touch sensation in hand and spatial knowledge
What is autotopagnosia?
- - disturbances in the perception of the pts own body or body parts
- - may not recognise a hemiplegic limb as theres
- - often has difficulty aligning upright
what is a decerbrate posture?
- - rigid extension of trunk, neck and limbs
- - limbs adducted and internally rotated
- - feet are inverted and PF
- - wrist and fingers are flexed
what is a decorticate posture?
- - ext of trunk, neck and lwer limbs
- - flexion of upper limbs
hat is a decompressive hemicraniectomy?
- - surgery to decrease high intracranial pressure
- - piece of skull is removed to allow brain to expand
what is dexterity?
- - ability to do motor tasks quickly, rationally and deftly
- - ability to fractionate movement to make independent movements esp fine movement
what is dysnomia?
- - inabilty to name objects
- - may demonstrate paraphrasic errors- substituting words that have inappropriate meaning but sound the same or start with the same letters
- eg says chair rather chest
- - occurs with recpetiveaphaia
what is double simultaneous stimulation?
- - apprecitation of two simultaneous stimuli presented on both sides of the body in the same area- when awareness of the stimuli is intact when each sid is touched separately and not when touched together, an extinction effect is occurring.
- - known as a sensory inattention
- - eyes are closed on testing
What is dysarthria?
- - defects of articulation arising from neuor- muscular conditions affecting mm tone and the action of the mm used in articulation.
- - reflex behaviours such as for swallowing, sucking and chewing are also usually affected
What is an endarterectomy?
- removal of atheroma from a blocked artery
what is flaccidity?
a decrease in mm tension = jt instability, incoordination and poor postural adjustments and decreased functional ability
what is an infarct core/
- - area of cell death due to being deprived blood supply
- - severe ischemia can result in loss of O2 and glucose and rapid depletion of energy stores
- - can result in necrosis ofneurons and supporting cellular elements (glial cells)
what is the core zone?
- an area of severe ischemia (blood flow below 10 to 25%)
what is INR?
- international normalised ration
- - measure of the clotting abilit of blood
- - calculated as the ratio of the lenght of time it takes blood to clot over the time it would take the blood of a normal subject to clot
what are the three different types of involuntary movements?
- - athetosis
- - chorea
- - tremor
what is athetosis?
- slow writhing continuous involuntary movements of the head, trunk and particularly the distal limbs
What is chorea?
- jerky, rapid, purposeless involuntary movts involving the trunk and proximal limb in particular
what is a tremor?
- fine or coarse invol, rhythmic oscillating movements of any part of the body resulting from the reciprocal contraction of antagonistic mm groups. Can be resting or intentional tremor
What is lability?
- fluctuating emotional changes where a person may cry or laugh inappropriately
what is motor impersistence?
- failure to persist in a motor activity or contraction due to the instability to sustain directed attention
a rhthmic oscillation of the eyeballs can be fast and slow
what is penumbra?
- - area of cerebral tissue that is ischemic but still viable
- - can be viable for up to svereal hours
- - as this area is supplied by collateral channels
- - still can die tho
what is perseveration?
- tendency for a mental or motor process to continue in activity after the situation which caled it forth ceases to be present
what is proprioception?
- this is the awareness of jt/ limb in space
- - jt position test- and the appreciation of movement in space
- - passive movement appreciation- both need to be done with eyes closed
What is rigity?
- an increase in mm tension tension in both agonist and antagonists. Can be cogwheel or leadpipe
WHat is stenting?
- a metal mesh tube is placed in an artery to increase blood to an area blocked by stenosis
What is stereognosis?
the ability to tell the difference two objects by the size, shape, and texture
What is spasticity?
increase in mm tension either at the rest or during movt which causes an imbalance in mm activity about a jt
What is thrombolysis?
- the use of pharmacoogical agents to break down (lysis) blood clots. While anticoagulants decrease the growth of a clot, thrombolytic agents actively reduce the size of the clot. It is colloquially referred to as clot busting for this reason
what is tPA?
- Tissue Plasmineogen Activator is a thrombolytic agent (clot- busting drug)
- - tPA is the only drug approved in australia for the acute treatment of ischemic stroke
- - must be used 5 hrs of the initial stroke symptoms
what is two point discrimination?
- distance between two points awareness of these two stimuli on homologous areas of the body
- eyes closed
What are the visual disorder?
- - hemianopia
- - homononyous hemianopia
- - bitemporal hemianopia
- - quadrantopia
what is hemianopia?
- loss of vision in one half field of each eye
what is homononyous hemianopia?
- loss of vision on the same side of each eye ie one medial and one lateral field
What is bitemporal hemianopia?
- loss of vision in the lateral field of each eyes
what is quadrantopia?
- - loss of vision in one quarter field
- - upper or lower
- - medial or lateral quadrants can be lost
What are voluntary movement disorders: incoordination?
- - asynergy
- - ataxia
- - dysdiadochokinesia
- - dysmetria
what is asynergy?
it is reflected in separation of voluntary movements that normally flow smoothly in sequence into a succession of mechanical and puppet like movement (decomposition of movement)
what is ataxia?
- this term describe the combined effetcts of dysmetria and asynergy
- there are errors in the sequence and speed of the components of each movement eg gait is halting and lurching over a broad base of support
what is dysdiadochokinesia?
the inability to perform rapid alternating movements
What is Dysmetria?
the inability to use the correct force in executing a movement such that inaccuracy in direction occurs. Hypermetria = past pointing