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What is the need for affiliation?
The desire to establish and maintain many rewarding interpersonal relationships
What is meant by loneliness?
A feeling of deprivation about existing social relations
What do we know about proximity and attraction?
single best predictor of whether two people will get together is physical proximity or nearness
How does Festinger's research illustrate this?
Studied friendship patterns in married student college housing and found that people were more likely to become friends with residents of nearby apartments than with those who lived farther away.
What is the mere exposure effect?
The phenomenons whereby the more often people are exposed to a stimulus the more positively they evaluate that stimulus.
What does it suggest about who you're likely to be attracted to?
- There is some benefit to simply hanging around or being near a girl that you're attracted to.
- If you two have a class together, if she sits near you at work, if you often see her at the gym, all these exposures are working to your advantage.
- The first time she ever saw you, she might have thought you were a 5 on a 10 point scale. But after seeing you repeatedly at the gym, she might now rate you an 8 or 9. And you haven't really done anything.
What body and facial features are found universally attractive?
- Body-Hourglass figure
- Face- smooth skin, pleasant expression, and youthfulness
How does culture influence what is perceived to be attractive?
What is the what-is-beautiful-is-good stereotype?
The belief that physically attractive individuals also possess desirable personality characteristics
Is the what-is-beautiful- is-good accurate?
One possibility is that each of us creates support for the bias via the type of self-fulfilling prophecy model
How does the self-fulfilling prophecy contribute to this?
Fulfilling the prophecies of their own expectations men who expected an attractive partner actually created one.
What are the costs vs. benefits of being beautiful?
Good looking people have a significant edge, they are more popular more sexually experience more socially skilled and more likely to attract a mate. Physical attractiveness is not a sure ticket to health happiness or high self esteem.
What is the matching hypothesis?
The proposition that people are attracted to others who are similar in physical attractiveness
What is meant by reciprocity?
A mutual exchange between what we give and receive (liking those who like us)
What is the hard-to-get effect?
The tendency to prefer people who are highly selective in their social choices over those who are more readily available
What findings are consistent with an evolutionary perspective on mate selection?
Human beings all over the world exhibit mate selection patterns that favor the conception birth and survival of their offspring, and women and men by necessity employ different strategies to achieve that common goal
The sociocultural perspective?
The theories discussed so far all have an "intrapsychic" focus. That is, they take the view that behavior and thought are determined largely by factors that reside within an individual. In contrast, the sociocultural perspective maintains that behavior and mental processes are shaped not only by prior learning experiences (the behavioral perspective) or intrapsychic forces (for instance, the unconscious) but also by the social or cultural context.
close or warm friendship
What is meant by intimate relationships?
A close relationship between two adults involving emotional attachment, fulfillment of psychological needs, or interdependence
What does social exchange theory have to say about relationships?
A perspective that views people as motivated to maximize benefits and minimize costs in their relationship with others.
Rusbult's investment model
- Our commitment to a relationship depends on how satisfied we are about:
- Rewards and costs and what we see as a fair balance.
- A comparison with potential alternative relationships
- How much we have already invested in the relationship.
- Investments can be financial (like a house), temporal (such as time spend together) or emotional (such as in the welfare of the children). Investments can thus has a sunk cost-effect, where a person stays in a relationship simply because they have already invested significantly in it.
What is the difference between exchange and communal relationships?
- Exchange- a relationship in which the participants expect and desire strict reciprocity in their interactions
- Communal- A relationship in which the participant expect and desire mutual responsiveness to each others needs
Define different attachment styles, how they're proposed to develop, and describe the significance of attachment in adult relationships.
- They way a person typically interacts with significant others
- Secure- easy to get close to others and comfortable depending on them and having them depend on me. I don't often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting to close to me
- Avoidant- Somewhat comfortable being close to others I find I difficult to trust them completely difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets to close and often love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being
- Anxious- I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to merge complexly with another person, and this desire sometimes scare people away
Triangular Theory of Love
A theory proposing that love has three basic components, intimacy, passion ,a dn commitment which can be combined to produce eight subtypes
- Romanic Love- Intimacy and Passion
- Companionate Love- Intimacy and Commitment
- Infatuation- Passion
- Empty Love- Commitment
- Fatuous Love-Passion and Commitment
- Liking- Intimacy
- Consummate Love- All three
- Non-love (none of the three)
What role does physiological arousal play in passionate love (relate to famous Dutton & Aron �bridge� study)?
- Romantic love characterized by high arousal, intense attraction and fear of rejection
- Two bridge- young man met on each bridge by pretty girl, one bridge sturdy, other shit taskic, men who got girl phone on scary bridge called, men on sturdy bridge did not
Discuss the significance of self-disclosure in developing relationships.
Revelations about the self that a person makes to others
Discuss communication and conflict in marital couples.
What is meant by sexual orientation?
A person's preference for members of the same sex, opposite sex, or both (straight, gay, or bi)