Social Psychology Vocab
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What is Cialdini's six weapons of influnece?
- Reciprocation - Repaying an act in order to avoid feeling indebted. "I scratched your back, so now you owe me one," a favor.
- Commitment & consistency - Creates obligation. Procuring a commitment creates obligation.
- Social proof - Following others' actions as an idicaton of what's true or right. “The bandwagon effect"
- Liking - We generally say "yes" to people we like and "no" to people we don’t.
- Authority - We tend to do what people in authority positions want, even if it is only perceived authority.
- Scarcity - People want what they (think) they can’t have.
A means of resolving conflict that involves each side of the dispute making offers, counteroffers, and concessions.
The belief that we are justified in our own thoughts and actions but that others are biased in their beliefs and behaviors.
The degree to which a group is connected.
The perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
The tendency for an individual within a group to let go of self-awareness and restrint and do what the group is doing. Three factors contribute to deindividuation (Zimbardo, 1969) Arousal, Anonymity, and Reduced feelings of responsibility.
Distraction conflict theory
The idea that a person performing a task in front of others experiences a conflict of attention between the audience and the task at hand, thus increasing the motivation to succeed when completing simple task.
The idea that one's performance will be hindered or heightened due to approval or disapproval from others.
- Stands for "graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction"; a step-by-step formaula for de-escalating a conflict that involves unilateral concessions and quick reciprocation by the apposition.
- "Gradual Reduction in Tension" - Compromise is the key and it leads to de-escalation of emotions and hostility. The goal is trust and cooperation toward a mutually acceptable outcome.
Two or more people who are seen as a uniti and interact with one another. May be people who do or do not know each other. May be defined by some common feature. Group membership can be brief or extended.
Rules or expectations regarding desirable behaviors that group memebers strive to follow.
The tendency for an attitude or belief to become magnified within a group after members discuss an issue amongst themselves.
A manner of thinking that happens when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic evaluation of other solutions.
Hostile attribution bias
Occurs when people assume that the intentions of another person are hostile.
Realistic group conflict
The theory that conflict stems from competition for limited resources such as money, land, power or other resources.
- The nonconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partner, such that one's beavior passively and unintentionally changes to match that of others in one's current social environment.
- Unconscious tendency to mimic the behavior of one’s interaction partner (Facial expressions, Physical gestures, Vocal tone)
A from of social influence involving direct requests from one person to another.
A type of social influence in which an indivicual changes is or her behaviors to stay in line with social norms.
Descriptive norms (Prescriptive, Rules)
How people typically behave in a given group or situation.
A persuasive compliance in which the requester makes an initial offer that is much larger than the target offer, in the hope that the final offer will have the appearance of te requester doing a favor for the targer person.
A compliance technique that begins with a samll request that, when granted, leads to a larger request.
Informational social influence
A type of influnce that occurs when one turns members of one's group to obtain accurate information.
Techniques in which we get others to like us so they are more likely to comply with a request.
Injuctive norms (Proscriptive, Prohibit)
Behaviors of which people typically approve or disapprove in a given group or situation. Perceptions of what behaviors are or are not acceptable.
A compliance technique in which a target accepts a "low-cost" offer, only then to be told that there are additional hiddne cost.
A process in which a small number of people within a group guide a change in the group's attitude or behavior.
Normative social influence
A type of influence that occurs when one goes along with a group because one wants to be accepted.
A form of social influence in which an individual orders another person to do something.
A type of norm misperception that occurs when each individual in a group privately rejects the norms of the group, but believes that others accept them.
A type of conformity that occurs when people truly believe that group is right; occurs even in the absence of group members.
A type of conformity that occurs when we feel pressured to conform to group norms. When publicly confoming, people pretened to agree with the group, but privately think the group is wrong.
Social imapct theory
A theory that suggests that social influence depends on the strength, immediacy, and number of source persons relative to the targer person(s).
Patterns of behavior that are accepted as normal, and to which an individual is expected to conform, in a particular group or culture. Patterns of behavior accepted as normal. Individuals are expected to conform to norms. “Rules" that govern behavior. Can be explicit (expressed) or implicit (implied)
Expectations for the ways in which an individual should behave in a given situation.
A compliance technique in whic an intial request is followed by adding something that makes the offer more attractive.
a type of processing that occurs when an individual has the ability and motivation to thoroughly listen to and evaluate a persuasive message.
Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
Petty and Cacioppo (1986) A model of persuasion that proposes that there are two different routes, central and peripheral, that an individual may take when processing a message. The route is impacted by cognitive capacity and individual differences of the perceiver.
An attmept to provoke fear in the audience in order to persuade them not to do something.
The process of being informed ahed of time that a favored attitude will be challenged. Being informed ahead of time that an attempt to persuade is coming. Allows us to "steel our defenses."
The process of building up resistance to unwanted persuasion.
The degree to which the economic or social outcome promoted in the message is important to the receiver.
A type of processing that occurs when an individual lacks the ability and motivation to throughly listen to and evaluate a persuasive message, and is therefore influenced by external cues like attractiveness of the speaker.
The way people communicate inorder to influence other people's attitudes and behaviors.
When individuals feel that their freedom is threatened, they instinctively want to restore their freedom. People do not like to feel "forced" into an action or a way of thinking.
The effect whereby the persuassive impact of a non-credible source increases over time. We remember te message but forget the criticisms of it.
The person or persons wo delivers the message.
The degree of attraction or aversion that a person feels toward a specific object, event, or idea.
- The contradictory attitudes of hostile sexism and benevolent sexism.
- Hostile sexism: They feel resentful about women's abilities and make derogatory remarks about the female sex.
- Benevolent: Feeling paternalistic toward women and wanting to demonstrate chivalrous behavior (a more acceptable form of sexism, but a contributor to negative female stereotypes nonetheless).
Overt, oppressive acts and feelings toward a group of people based on thier race.
Negative feelings toward a group of people based on their race, manifested in more subtle forms of racism.
Overt sexism, characterized by the edorsement of traditional gender roles, differential treatment of men and women, and stereotypes about lesser female competence.
Internalized negative feelings toward a group of people based on thier gender, characterized by a denial of continued descrimination, antagonism toward women's demands, and lack of support for policies designed to help women in work and education.
A negative learned attitude toward particular groups of people.
A behavior directed toward a group of people based solely on thier membership in that group.
An institutional practice that discriminates agianst individuals on the basis of thier race.
- An institutional practice that discriminates against individuals on the basis of their gender.
- Ambivalent sexism – the contradiction between hostile and benevolent sexism.
- Hostile sexism – feeling resentful and openly derogatory toward the abilities of women.
- Benevolent sexism – when men behave in ways that appear chivalrous, but can also communicate to negative female stereotypes
The tendency to hold a hostile attitude toward an individual because of his or her racial background.
The tendency to hold a hostile attitude toward an individual because of his or her gender.
People's ideas about how men and women behave based on socially and culturally defined beliefs.
The attitudes of whites who openly endorse egalitarian views bud discriminate in ways they're able to rationalize.
A personality type that favors obedience to authority and intolerance of people lower in status.
The process of dividing people into categories according to their race, gender, and other common attributes.
Outgroup Homogeneity Effect
The tendency to see outgroup memembers as similar to one another but ingroup members as diverse individuals.
The natural tendency to favor an ingroup versus an outgroup.
Discontent caused by the belief that we might fare badly in comparison with people in other groups.
Fear or anxiety held by people in minority groups that they might conform to a negative cultural stereotype.
The belief that increased communication and contact between different racial groups reduces levels of prejudice and discrimination.
Jigsaw Classroom Technique
Teaching method that focuses on small-group activities and fosters acooperative rahter than competitive environment.
Attempts to influence others' attitude or behaviors.
What are two routes to persuasion?
- Central route - Attending to and evaluating a given message. Creates opinions that are resistant to change. People rely on the message and their own reflections. More cognitive effort makes more entrenched positions.
- Peripheral route - attending to external cues, like the attractiveness of a speaker. Involves a lack of ability or motivation to attend to the message. How the mesage is put together (data, length, repetition, and attractiveness of the speaker).
- The credibillity can demnish the message.
Richard Petty and Collegues (2004)
Argue that attitudes that are devolped as a result of suing the central route to persuasion "will be more persistent over time, will remain more resistant to persuasion, and willexert a greater impact on cognition and behavior.
A form of social influence in which an individual orders another person to do something.
A way of controlling others' impressions of us through flattery. "Kiss ass."
The enhancement of well-learned performance when another person is present. The tendency to have enhanced performance when around others. Is not always the case – some performance is hindered by the presence of others. Familiar or simple tasks tend to be facilitated. Unfamiliar or difficult tasks tend to be hindered.
A phenomenon that occurs when individuals make less of an effort when attempting to achieve a particualr goal as a group than they would if they were attempting to achieve the goal on their own. A study led by Alan Ingham and his team (1974) showed that when blindfolded students were led to believe that others were pulling behind them in a game of tug of war, they exerted less effort than when they knew they were pulling alone.
The differences between public conformity and private conformity.
Public conformity is when the person feel pressured to follow the group, but don't agree with the group. Private conformity is when the person really believes the group is right.
What effects the routes to persuasion? (The source)
- The person or organization who delivers a persuasive message.
- Attractive = more persuasive (with limits).
- Credibility = can increase or decrease persuasive ability
- Similarity between the source and the audience (Background, Values, Association, and Level of attractiveness).
- Likeability – if we don’t find the source likeable, it will be hard for that source to persuade us of anything!
What effects the routes to persuasion? (The message)
- Message content - The tactics used to communicate a concept.
- Message constructions - How the message is put together (data, length, repetition).
- The valence of a message - The attraction or aversion a person feels toward an object, event, or idea. Can be a positive or negative valence.
What tactics can influence of the route?
- Fear-based appeals - Negative valence that is elicited by a message designed to prevent a specific action. Most effective when trying to prevent a negative outcome.
- Positive valence can be more effective than fear-based messages. The effectiveness of either valence might be mediated by culture. Americans – more likely to respond to positive valence. Japanese – more likely to respond to negative valence.
Other factors of the persuasion messages.
- Other message factors can include length and strength of a message. Presenting both sides of an argument is more effective than only giving one side.
- An individual’s investment in an issue affects persuasion.
- Issues we care deeply about are resistant to persuasion.
- Proximity is also important – how near something is to us in time and space. Greater proximity increases central-route processing.
Focusing on situational cues when deciding how to present one’s self. High self-monitors are more vulnerable to attitude shifts.
Expirement on social roles
Stanford Prison Experiment (Zimbardo, 1971), expectations regarding appropriate behavior in different circumstances.
Type of norms
- Folkways - Everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture. These are sometime referred to as soft norms.
- Mores - Strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences. Taboos are mores so strong that violation is considered extremely offensive and even unmentionable.
- Laws - •Formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions. Civil law deals with disputes among persons or groups. Criminal law deals with public safety and well-being.
- Situational - Norms that change according to the situation. For example, Normative behavior at a sporting event would not be appropriate within the context of the normal classroom.
What Factors Affect and Promote Conformity?
- Conformity- Social influence in which we change our behaviors to be consistent with social norms.
- Informational Social Influence occurs when the reality is ambiguous and group information is used to justify conformity. This usually results in private conformity and the individual truly believes the group is right.
- Normative Social Influence occurs when the reality is unambiguous but a desire for acceptance prompts one to go along with the group. This is usually public conformity and the individual is only pretending to agree but privately believes the group is wrong.
- Public conformity – we go with the norm even when we disagree with it.
- Private conformity – we go with the norm because we feel it is right.
- Informational social influence - We turn to members of a group to obtain accurate data.
- Normative social influence -We go along with a group for acceptance
Musafer Sherif’s Conformity Research: Informational Influence
Subjects in a darkened room were asked to look at a point of light projected on a black wall. Although the point of light was stationary, observed believed the light began to move (the autokinetic effect).When individuals discussed their estimate of the movement of light with each other, they converged on a common standard or norm. Although the data indicate that influence was present, subjects denied that they were influenced by others. The more uncertain subjects were about reality, the more they were influenced by others, especially confident others. Norms, once established by the group, were used by participants even when they were alone.
Solomon Asch’s Conformity Research: Normative Influence
Asch’s research assistants tried to influence participants to pick the wrong line as the match for the line in the comparison card. Many (approximately 33%) went along rather than risk the opposition of the “group.”
Factors Affecting Conformity
- Characteristics of the group - How many are in the ‘in-group’? Three confederates maximized conformity. Social impact theory. Conformity depends on the strength, immediacy, and number of ‘in-group’ members.
- Demographic variables - Age – conformity decreases as we get older.
- Peers versus parents - These variables are negative correlated.
- Gender – women conform more in public, but not in private (This finding is not true in all circumstances)
- Culture - Collectivist cultures -> higher conformity. Individualistic cultures -> lower conformity. (These are generalizations and not absolute rules).
- Resisting the pull of conformity- Finding an ally (it is easier to resist conformity if you do not feel alone). Motivation – how does one’s need for individuality affect their actions? Minority influence - A small number of people can change a group’s attitudes or behaviors.
The Six principles of compliance (Cialdini, 1990s)
- 1. Friendship or liking. Ingratiation techniques – getting someone to like us so they comply with our request(s)
- 2. Commitment or consistency. Foot-in-the-door technique - Start with a small request and then increase it. Lowball technique - Hidden fees.
- 3. Scarcity - We really want things if we think we can’t have them
- 4. Reciprocity. Compliance is enhanced by obligation. Door-in-the-face technique - Start with a large request and then decrease it. The that’s-not-all technique - Add something to the original offer to enhance its (apparent) value.
- 5. Social validation - We comply with requests that are in line with our view of others like ourselves
- 6. Authority - We are more likely to comply with requests from those with authority
Stanley Milgram's Obedience Research (1963)
Replications have lowered the "maximum shock" (Burger, 2009). Results were very similar to those of Milgram almost 50 years ago.
Strategies for Resisting Obedience
- Changing authority - Remove the appearance of authority. Milgram showed that the perception of authority is enough to elicit obedience.
- Changing proximity - Physical or psychological closeness can impact our willingness to be obedient.
A small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships. Are groups in which people spend a great deal of time together. These personal and tightly integrated groups are among the first experienced in life.Members of primary groups think of their group as an end in itself rather than as a means to other ends. Members view each other as unique and irreplaceable.
A large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity. Secondary relationships involve weak emotional ties and little personal knowledge of one another. Include many more people than primary groups. Passage of time can transform a group from secondary to primary. Members do not think of themselves as “we.”
Categories and Aggregates
- Categories share a similar characteristic (Students, elderly, Native Americans)
- Aggregates happen to be in the same place at the same time (Airline passengers, shoppers, waiting at a traffic light)
What leads to arousal? 3 factors
- Mere presence - The simple presence of others causes physical arousal.
- Evaluation apprehension - Feeling judged enhances self-consciousness. This can lead to poorer performance.
- Distraction conflict theory - The presence of others can take attention away from performance. This can lead to poorer performance. Is also affected by the difficulty of the task.
Explanations of Crowd Behavior
- Contagion Theory - People are more likely to engage in antisocial behavior in a crowd because they are anonymous and feel invulnerable.
- Social unrest and circular reaction - the discontent of one person is communicated to another who reflects it back to the first person.
- Convergence theory - focuses on the shared emotions, goals, and beliefs people bring to crowd behavior.
- Emergent norm theory - crowds develop their own definition of the situation and establish norms for behavior that fits the occasion.
- How does a Group Make Decisions? Risky Shift -We will take greater risks as a group than we will as individuals. Related to social loafing, as responsibility is spread out among group members. Risk-taking is related to social status in a group.
How are Conflicts among Groups Resolved?
- Conflict – a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
- Causes of conflict - Realistic conflict theory - When different groups compete for resources. Sherif, 1966 – two groups of campers "came together."
- Attributional bias - We form opinions regarding the cause of a behavior without adequate data. Hostile attributional bias - The assumption that others have hostile or negative intentions. Blaming other people when we don’t achieve a goal.
- Communication errors - Sometimes simple misunderstandings lead to major conflicts. Different people communicate differently.
- Biased perception - We see ourselves as being "right" while we see others as being biased. Hostile media phenomenon – we think that the media is biased against any view that we hold
- Bargaining (negotiation)
- Seeking a common ground
- Differing parties come together to discuss and resolve conflict
- Involves counter-offers and concessions
- The goal is for everyone to win a little and no one has to feel like they "lost."
A general belief about a group of people. Differs from prejudice in that it can have positive or negative connotations. Runs the risk of becoming prejudicial and leading to discrimination.
The Implicit Association Test (IAT)
Students are shown pictures of different faces. Positive or negative words are presented. The time it takes to pair word with faces is measured. Findings – people tend to have implicit negative stereotypes about those who are different than themselves.
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