bio psych

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Pollypocket1220
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180506
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bio psych
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2012-10-29 02:57:12
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exam bio psych
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exam 3 bio psych
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  1. The perception of color is what ?
    Wavelength
  2. The perception of brightness is what ?
    Amplitude
  3. Light enters the eye through 
    The pupil 
  4. The ability to see when light is dim, is what ?
    sensitivity 
  5. The ability to see details, increases with pupil constriction, is what ?
    Acuity
  6. The process of adjusting the lens to bring images into focus is what ?
    Accomodation
  7. eyes must turn slightly inward when objects are close is what ?
    Convergence 
  8. difference between the images on the two retinas is known as what ?
    Binocular disparity 
  9. no receptors where information exits the eye, is known as what ?
    blind spot 
  10. high acuity area at center of retina, is known as what ?
    Fovea
  11. photopic (daytime) vision
    High-acuity color information in good lighting
    this is which type of vision?
    cones
  12. scotopic (nighttime) vision
    High-sensitivity, allowing for low-acuity vision in dim light, but lacks detail and color information
    what type of vision is this ?
    rods
  13. More ________ in ___ system, increasing sensitivity while decreasing acuity
    • Convergence
    • rod
  14. Only ____ are found in the fovea 
    cones
  15. ______   shows the relationship between wavelength and brightness
    spectral sensitivity curve
  16. Shift in relative brightness of colors as we change from photopic to scotopic vision
    Is known as what ?
    Purkinje effect
  17. We continually scan the world with small and quick eye movements known as what?
    Saccades
  18. Conversion of one form of energy to another, is known as?
    Transduction
  19. conversion of light to neural signals by visual receptors (photoreceptors), Is known as ?
    Visual transduction
  20. ______  describes spectral sensitivity, Is known as?
    Absorption spectrum
  21. The pigment found in rods
    Rods are bleached under light and loose their ability to absorb light
    Degree of light absorption determines vision
    This describes what?
    Rhodopsin
  22. A G protein-linked receptor that responds to light rather than to neurotransmitters, describes what?
    Rhodopsin
  23. Rhodopsin:
    In the dark
    ___channels remain partially open (partial depolarization), releasing _____.?
    • Na+
    • Glutamate
  24. Rhodopsin
    When light strikes:
    ___ channels ____
    Rods hyperpolarize, inhibiting glutamate release
    • Na+
    • Close
  25. what is the primary visual pathway?
    • retina 
    • LGN
    • V1
  26. 90% of axons of retinal ganglion cells are in this pathway?
    Primary visual pathway
  27. The left _______ of each eye (right visual field) connects to the right ____________ the right hemiretina (left visual field) connects to the left LGN 
    • hemiretina
    • lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
  28. Crossing takes place at the ?
    optic chiasm
  29. Each LGN is divided into 6 layers and receives input only from __________  But since each half of visual field is seen by both eyes, 3 layers get input from one eye and the other 3 layers from the other eye 
    the contralateral visual field.
  30. Most LGN neurons that project to primary visual cortex (V1, striate cortex) terminate in the lower part of ________
    cortical layer IV
  31. Retinotopic Organization:
    Information received at adjacent portions of the retina remains adjacent in the _____?
    striate cortex 
  32. Retinotopic Organization:
    More cortex is devoted to areas of high acuity – like the disproportionate representation of sensitive body parts in ______?
    somatosensory cortex
  33. Retinotopic Organization:
    About 25% of ______ is dedicated to input from the ____
    The _____covers about 2 degrees of visual angle
    • primary visual cortex
    • fovea
    • fovea
  34. Big cell bodies, bottom two layers of LGN
    Particularly responsive to movement
    Input primarily from rods
    Which layer is this?
    Magnocellular layer
  35. Small cell bodies, top four layers of LGN
    Color, detail, and still or slow objects
    Input primarily from cones
    which layer is this ?
    Parvocellular layer
  36. M & p channels:
    Project to slightly different areas in lower layer IV in ______, __ neurons just above the __ neurons.
    Project to different parts of visual cortex beyond V1
    • striate cortex
    • M
    • P
  37. nonexistent stripes that the visual system creates for contrast enhancement, Makes edges easier to see



    This is what ?
    Mach bands
  38. A cell that receives information _____ the firing of its neighboring cells
    inhibits
  39. The area of the visual field within which it is possible for a visual stimulus to influence (decrease or increase) the firing of a given neuron
    Is known as what ?
    Receptive Fields of Visual Neurons
  40. Hubel and Wiesel looked at receptive fields in cat __________, ___, and __________.
    • retinal ganglion
    • LGN
    • lower layer IV of striate cortex
  41. Receptive fields of ____ areas are smaller than those in the periphery
    foveal
  42. ________ receptive fields are circular in shape
    Neurons’
  43. Neurons are _________, each neuron has a receptive field in only one eye
    monocular
  44. Many neurons at each level had receptive fields with ______ and _______ (concentric) areas
    • excitatory
    • inhibitory
  45. Many cells have receptive fields with a center-surround organization: excitatory and inhibitory regions separated by a _______.
    circular boundary
  46. In the ___________, neurons with circular receptive fields (as in retinal ganglion cells and LGN) are rare 
    striate cortex
  47. Most neurons in V1 are either
    simple or complex
  48. receptive fields are rectangular with “on” and “off” regions
    is known as?
    simple
  49. also rectangular, larger receptive fields, respond to a particular stimulus anywhere in its receptive field
    is known as?
    complex
  50. Receptive Fields in Striate Cortex:
    Rectangular
    “On” and “off” regions, like cells in layer IV
    Orientation and location sensitive
    All are monocular
    simple
  51. Receptive Fields in Striate Cortex:
    Rectangular
    Larger receptive fields
    Do not have static “on” and “off” regions
    Not location sensitive
    Motion sensitive
    Many are binocular (depth perception)
    complex
  52. Cells with _____ receptive fields send information on to cells with more _____receptive fields
    • simpler
    • complex 
  53. Functional vertical columns exist such that all cells in a column have the same _______ and ______.
    • receptive field
    • ocular dominance
  54. Proposed by Young, refined by Helmholtz
    Three types of receptors, each with a different spectral sensitivity
    Which type of theory ?
    Component theory
  55. Component theory
    We do have 3 types of cones
    _cones - short wavelength, about 430 nm
    _ cones - medium wavelength, about 530 nm
    _ cones - long wavelength, about 560 nm
    Similar to RGB system
    • S
    • M
    • L
  56. Proposed by Hering
    Two different classes of cells encoding color, and another class encoding brightness
    Each encodes two complementary color perceptions
    Accounts for color afterimages and colors that cannot appear together (reddish green or bluish yellow).  Also for colorblindness.
    This describes which theory ?
    Color: opponent processing theory
  57. coding of color by cones seems to operate on a purely ______ basis, ______processing of color is seen at all subsequent levels
    • component
    • opponent 
  58. Dual _______color cells respond to wavelength contrast
    opponent 
  59. color is determined by the proportion of light of different wavelengths that a surface reflects
    This is known as which type of theory ?
    Retinex theory
  60. Flow of visual information:
    _____ to
    _____ relay neurons, to
    1˚ visual cortex (_____), to
    2˚ visual cortex (_____), to
    Visual association cortex
    • Retina
    • Thalamic
    • striate
    • prestriate
  61. Areas of blindness in contralateral visual field due to damage to primary visual cortex
    Detected by perimetry test
    This is known as?
    Scotomas
  62. Patients may be unaware of scotoma – missing details supplied by “______”
    completion
  63. pathway from primary visual cortex to dorsal prestriate cortex to posterior parietal cortex
    The “where” pathway (location and movement), or
    Pathway for control of behavior (e.g. reaching)
    This describes which stream?
    Dorsal stream
  64. pathway from primary visual cortex to ventral prestriate cortex to inferotemporal cortex
    The “what” pathway (color and shape), or
    Pathway for conscious perception of objects
    This describes which stream?
    Ventral stream
  65. Damage to where pathway - ________: deficit in visually guided reaching
    optic ataxia
  66. Damage to “what” pathway - _______: unable to identify object by sight
    visual agnosia
  67. Inability to distinguish among faces
    Often associated with damage to the ventral stream
    This is known as ?
    Prosopagnosia

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