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What are the 3 components of attitudes?
- General evaluations people hold in regard to themselves, other people, objects, or ideas
- Affective: Emotional reaction
- “It’s adorable!” +
- “It’s stupid!”–
- Behavioral: What you do.
- “I’m buying action figures!” +
- “I’m running away from action figures!” –
- Cognitive: Beliefs about the object“It’s fun!” +
- “It’s boring!” –
Asking someone directly.
The Bogus Pipeline
- Making the participant think you can measure what they really feel. (Lie detector etc)
- Generally increases the willingness to confess certain behaviors
Covert measures of attitudes:
- Example: Does it frustrate you when children are noisy?
- – Behavioral observation: When children are noisy, are you rolling your eyes?
- – Physiological measures
- – Responses where quick reactions are required.
Quick responses: Lexical Decision
- Decide whether or not a list or words is aword or is nonsense
- Faster response to primed words
Mere Exposure Effect
Simply being exposed to an attitude object repeatedly can cause attitude change
Increased liking happens for things that are not not negative; repeated exposure to bad things negative; repeated exposure to bad thingscan make you dislike them more.
- Modeling: Taking after someone else’s attitudes
- • Operant Conditioning: Rewarding expression of certain attitudes.
- • Classical Conditioning: Certain attitudes get paired with some other stimulus.
2 Routes to Persuasion: Elaboration Likelihood Model
Central Route to processing:
- People are influenced by the strength and quality of the message.
- – attitude changes tends to be more permanent
2 Routes to Persuasion: Elaboration Likelihood Model
Peripheral Route to processing
- People do not think critically about the contents of the message but focus instead on other cues
- attitude changes tends to be less permanent
Chaiken (1980): What determines the route we use?
- –3 IV’s• Importance of message to target
- • # of strong arguments
- • Likeability of source
- DV: amount of persuasion
Results: If something had high relevance to someone, their expertise and likeable traits mattered less than something irrelevant.
3 Factors that determine persuasion
- SOURCE:‐ Likeability‐ Credibility‐ Number of Sources
- MESSAGE:‐ Number of arguments‐ Scarcity‐ Subtlety‐ Emotional Appeals
- Mood: Being in a good mood makes you buystuff more!
- Social Proof: Other people should share yourdecision.
- • Attitudes that have never been questioned are particularly susceptible to persuasion
- • By overcoming a weak attack against your beliefs, you will build defenses against more powerful beliefs
3 Types of Social Influence
►Conformity – a change in behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of others
►Compliance – yielding to a direct, explicit appeal appeal meant to produce certain behavior meant to produce certain behavioror agreement to a particular point of view
►Obedience – A change in behavior due to commands of others
Is conformity automatic? What is the evidence
- The Chameleon Effect: People mimic others’ behaviors automatically without realizing it
- – Especially Especially liked others
- • Convergence of social perception:
- – Sherif (1935): Autokinetic Effect
- – Asch (1951): Judgment of line lengths
Why do we conform?
Informational Social Influence:
We don’t have a good answer, but we want to be accurate, so we use others’ answers.
Why do we conform?
Normative Social Influence:
We conform because of social pressure to avoid conflict, embarrassment, etc.
What variables affect conformity?
- ►Group Size+
- ►Group Unanimity+
- ►Task/Issue Importance
- Low importance=
- High Importance-
- Easy -
- Hard +
What are the techniques of compliance?
- Reciprocity: If you need a favor, give a favor first.
- Door-in-the-Face technique: after first offering a large request (which is expected to be refused), offer another smaller request. Ex. campus blood drive
- Foot-in-the-door Technique: First ask for a small request (foot in the door), then follow with a larger request. Ex. Nurses and kidney donations
- Low-Balling – get compliance on a low-cost request and later reveal hidden additional costs
Electric Shock etc
Hofling’s study with nurses
Agreed to give a dangerous dose
Moderators of obedience
- Lab coat vs no coat
- Having a dissenter present
- Responsibility passed on: If someone is ordering us to do something, they take responsibility for the consequences
- Gradually increasing concessions: Full obedience (450 volts) more likely if people worked their way up to that point
- Immediacy of Victim: Sitting in the same room as the victim reduced obedience.
- Immediacy of Authority: We break the rules if the authority can’tsee us.
Zajonc’s Mere Presence Theory
Why does the presence of others increasearousal?
- Why does the presence of others increasearousal?
- – Increased alertness and vigilance.
- – Evaluation apprehension
- – Divided attention
- • In short: Presence of others reduces our ability to plan behaviors.
- – Thus, automatic responses are predominant: performance on EASY tasks increase, COMPLEX tasks decrease
- • Social loafing involves decreased arousal
- – No evaluation apprehension
- • Impairs performance on EASY tasks
- • Improves performance on COMPLEX tasks
When is social loafing less likely to occur?
- 1. People believe that their own performances can be identified and thus evaluated
- 2. The task is important or meaningful to those performing it.
- 3. People People believe that their own efforts are believe that their own efforts arenecessary for a successful outcome.
- 4. The group expects to be punished for poor performance.• 5. The group is small.
- 6. The group is cohesive
- Anonymity can reduce personal responsibilityfor own behavior.
- Mob mentalility
Group Function: Moral Behavior
- Being cognizant of others’ presence canmotivate prosocial behaviors.
- -Halloween Halloween Study
- no mirror present 34% took more than one candy
- mirror present 12% took more than one candy
- -IQ Test
- no mirror 71% violated time limits
- mirror 7% violated time limits
- Informational social influence: People only exposed to arguments in support of their group’s existing viewpoint.
- Normative social influence: Holding an Holding an extreme view in an extreme group gets you acceptance by the group.
- More groupthink with High cohesiveness: Groups of friends are less likely to disagree with each other.
- More groupthink with closed leadership: Prevented debate.
Groupthink: “A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive ingroup, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action.”
Common Knowledge Effect
If all members have all of the information:– 83% choose Candidate A after group discussion
• All members have some unique info: 76% choose one of the LESS qualified candidates
Why do groups do so poorly in brainstorming tasks?
- • Social loafing
- •Evaluation apprehension apprehension
- • Hearing other group members is distracting
Social Identity Theory
- Basics ideas:
- 1. People categorize the world into in-groups and out-groups
- 2. People strive for positive self-concept derive a sense of self-esteem from their in-group identification
- 3. their self-concept is partly dependent on how they evaluate in-group relative to other groups
Factors that affect initial attraction (FRAPPES)
- 1. Familiarity
- 2. Reciprocity
- 3. Arousal
- 4. Proximity
- 5. Physical Attractiveness
- 6. Evolutionary perspective
- 7. Similarity
What factors in attractiveness are cross-cultural? Which are not?
In Men and women: Large eyes, Prominent cheekbone, Big smile.
- Men: Large chin
- Women: Narrow cheeks, High eyebrows
Social Social Exchange Exchange Theory
- We’re motivated to maximize rewards and minimizecosts in relationships
- Rewards: any positive outcomes/benefits received from the relationship (e.g., companionship, resources, status, sex)
- Costs: any negative outcomes/consequences ofthe relationship (e.g., conflict, abuse, expenses)
People are most satisfied with a relationship when the ratio between the benefits and contributions is similar for both partners
- Proposes that there are three types of interactions patterns for romantic relationships(derived from earlier work on parent‐childinteraction patterns):
- – Secure
- – Avoidant
- – Anxious/ambivalent
Clark & Hatfield, 1989
Gender differences in responses to sexual offers
0% vs 75%
Walster et al (1966)
Internet dance gig
physical attractiveness was found to be the most important factor, over intelligence and personality.