Plant Science Chapter 7

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Plant Science Chapter 7
2012-11-06 17:33:10
Plant Science Chapter

Plant Science Chapter 7
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  1. Agriculture
    science or practice of farming including cultivation of the soil for growing crops and raising animals
  2. Agronomy
    art and science of crop production and soil management
  3. Plant Science
    growth, development, utilization of cultivated plants
  4. Forestry 
    science or practice of planting, managing and caring for forests and tree plantations
  5. Horticulture
    study of crops that requre intense and constant care from planting through delivery to customer
  6. Sustainable Agriculture
    farming pracitces that are profitable, environmentally sound, and good for the community
  7. Describe the Process of Germination
    • 1. imbibition of water
    • 2. hydration of tissues
    • 3. absorption of O2
    • 4. enzyme activation
    • 5. digestion of stored food reserves
    • 6. transport of hydrolyzed reserves to embryo
    • 7. increase in respiration
    • 8. cell divsion and enlargement
    • 9. embryo emergence
  8. Vernalization
    flower induction via exposure to certain cold temp. for amt. of time, gibberellins, period and intensity varies with species and culivar, 32-50 F is avg. temp. range required 
  9. Double fertilization with two polar nuclei result in a 3N ____, and fusion of the sperm with egg results in the ____
    endosperm, zygote
  10. What does PAR stand for and what is it
    Photosynthetically Active Radiation, visible light from the sun with a wavelength of 400 - 700 nm
  11. Name 2 of each, LDP, SDP, DNP
    • long day plants: Red Clover, Orchardgrass, Spinach
    • short day plants: Cotton, Soybeans, Strawberrry
    • day neutral plants: Corn, Tomatoes, Cucumber
  12. List 4 Components of a Seed and State Function
    • 1. Embryo - seedling plant
    • 2. Cotyledons - stored food to support seedling growth
    • 3. Seed Coat - protection 
    • 4. Enzymes & Horomones - digest stored food to create energy and control cell division
  13. 3 Primary Categories of Seed Storage Products
    carbohydrates, lipids, proteins
  14. 4 Germination Requirements 
    water, light, temperature, oxygen, germinable seed
  15. 3 factors that affect seed quality
    • conditions during seed fill (size)
    • conditions during seed storage (cool + dry)
    • length of seed storage
  16. 3 Components of a Seedling
    radicle, hypocotyl, cotyledons
  17. 4 Functions of Roots
    • 1. anchoring plants in the soil
    • 2. absorbing water and mineral nutrients
    • 3. conducting water and dissolved minerals, as well as organic materials to other parts of the plant
    • 4. storing food materials
  18. Explain Difference Between Epigeous and Hypogeous Germination
    • Epigeous - cotyledons are pushed above ground
    • Hypogeous - cotyledons remain below ground
  19. Explain Difference Between Determinate and Indeterminate Growth
    • Determinate - shut down when they go into reproductive stage, flower from top - bottom
    • Indeterminate - continue to put on growth while in reproductive stage, flower from bottom - top
  20. Heliotropic Movements
    Where leaf angles are adjusted so that the sun's rays are normal, or perpendicular, to the leaf during most of the day
  21. Angle of Incidence 
    the angle that a beam of sunlight makes with the Earth's surface (optimum angle 90 degrees)
  22. Plant Growth
    irreversible increase in volume or dry weight (biomass)
  23. Stages of Plant Development
    seed germination, growth of vegetative organs and tissues, initiation & maturation or reproductive organs and tissues, fertilization, seed development and maturation, senescence and death
  24. 4 Environmental Factors that Affect Plant Growth and Development
    light, temperature, water, gases 
  25. Describe What Happens on a Cellular Level When Plants are Subjected to Frost
    the contents of the cell are damaged by the formation of ice crystals that rupture the cell membranes and walls, allowing water to flow out of the protoplasm and desiccate the cells
  26. Steps of Dicot Germination
    • 1. radicle is first to emerge from seed
    • 2. radicle provides anchorage and absorbs water
    • 3. shoot emerges
    • 4. shoot is composed of cotyledons, hypocotyl, and epicotyl which emerge
  27. Steps of Monoct Germination
    • 1. coleorhiza emerges from seed first
    • 2. radicle emerges next 
    • 3. coleoptile emerges from the soil
    • 4. once coleoptile emerges from soil surface its growth ceases
    • 5. first true leaves emerge
  28. Name the Sigmoid Growth Curve Phases
    • 1. Lag Phase
    • 2. Logarithmic Phase
    • 3. Linear Phase
    • 4. Dampened Exponential Phase
    • 5. Steady State
    • 6. Senscence
  29. Name 5 people and their major in class
    • Will Espy - Ag Bus
    • Colton Ringer - Ag Engineering Tech
    • Will Jointer - Ag Bus
    • Thomas Bell - Farm and Ranch Mngmt
    • Monica Bell - Pre Vet
  30. Hormones Involved in Germination
    • 1. Gibberellins
    • 2. Cytokinins
    • 3. Auxins
    • 4. Ethlyene
  31. Enzymes Involved in Germination
    • 1. Hydrolases
    • 2. Nucleases
  32. 3 Seed Dormancy Mechanisms
    • immature embryo
    • impermeable seed coat or hard seededness
    • mechanical resistance
  33. Tillers
    important in crop production, lateral shoot from base to root
  34. Types of Flower Induction
    • 1. Self Induction - flower when they reach morphological maturity
    • 2. Photo Induction - photoperiodism; long-day plants vs. short-day plants
    • 3. Thermal Induction - vernalization requirement
  35. Photoperiodism
    term used to describe how daylength controls a plant process
  36. 2 Introconverted Forms of Phytochromes
    • P red - absorbs red light, 660 nm max. 
    • P far red - absorbs far red, 730 nm max. 

    Phytochromes control flowering and germination process
  37. Describe Phytochrome Ratio Relationships
    • Ratio of Pred to Pfar red increases as nights become longer, SDP will begin to flower
    • Ratio of Pfar red to Pred increases as nights become shorter, LDP will begin to flower
  38. What Reduces Light Quality
    Shading, Crop's Canopy, Full Sun
  39. Factors of Photosynthetic Rates
    • 1. Light Quality
    • 2. Light Intensity
    • 3. Carbon Dioxide Concentration
    • 4. Heat
    • 5. Water Availability
    • 6. Plant Development and Source - Sink Relationships
  40. Calvin Cycle
    (dark reaction) non-light requiring reaction in photosynthesis where carbon fixation occurs
  41. Carbon Fixation
    Addition of H+ to COto yield a chemically stable carbohydrate; H+ is contributed by NADPH
    (Ribulose bisphosphate Carboxylase) enzyme in non-light-requiring reactions of photosynthesis that fixes atmospheric CO2 into a carbohydrate and converts radiant energy to chemical energy
  43. Photosynthetic Photon Flux (PPF)
    intensity of photosynthetically active light

    *Full Sunlight = 2000 µmol/m2/s
  44. Carbon Dioxide Compensation Point
    amount of COevolved in respiration = amount of COconsumed in photosynthesis