SA Med, Q2, II

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SA Med, Q2, II
2012-10-29 09:59:24
SA Med Q2 II

SA Med, Q2, II
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  1. What is the hallmark of glomerular disease?
    protienuria (with an INACTIVE sediment)
  2. what are the 2 types of glomerular dz in domestic animals?
    • glomerulonephritis
    • glomerular amyloidosis
  3. what is the most common reason to see proteinuria?
    lower urinary tract (stones, infection, etc) --> see protein along with active sediment
  4. why are proteins not seen in urine in health?
    large molecules, negatively charged so repelled by negative basement membrane; tubular reabsorption/catabolism
  5. what are classical signs of nephrotic syndrome? 4
    • proteinuria
    • hypoalbuminemia
    • hypercholesterolemia
    • edema/ascites
  6. what produces mesangial matrix and is phagocytic/clears residues, therefore may play major role in mediating injury?
    mesangial cells
  7. what is role of microfilaments found on mesangial cells?
    respond to vasoactive substances like angiotensin II --> alter surface area of glomerulus available for filtration
  8. What type of injury underlies most cases of glomerulonephritis?
    immunologic injury (Ab-Ag complexes from pyometra, HW, SLE, adenovirus 1, chronic infections, neoplasia, IDIOPATHIC mostly)
  9. What are some causes of immune complex formation in glomerulus of cats? 4
    • mostly idiopathic
    • FeLV/FIP/FIV
    • Mycoplasma gatae
    • neoplasia (lymphoma)
  10. What breeds get membranoproliferative GN?
    • wheaton terrier
    • Bermese Mtn dog
    • Brittany spaniel
  11. What breeds get basement membrane disorders?
    • English Cocker Spaniel
    • Samoyeds
    • Doberman
    • Bull terrier
  12. What group of disease is characterized by extracellular deposition of protein subunits that form beta pleated sheets? what are characteristics when stained with H/E or congo red?
    amyloidosis (homogenous eosinophilic with H/E stain; green birefringence w/congo red)
  13. Is most amyloidosis systemic or localized?
    most commonly systemic --> familial or idiopathic (or assoc.w/neoplasia or chronic disease)
  14. What breeds are associated with familial reactive systemic amyloidosis?
    • shar pei, beagle, english foxhound
    • abyssinian, siamese, oriental short hair
  15. What is usually the reason amyloidosis is discovered in a patient?
    • deposits are widespread but clinical signs relate to kidney involvement/renal failure
    • **exception when severe liver involvement in shar pei, siamese, and oriental SH get hemoabdomen
  16. glomerulus v. medulla: where does amyloid deposit in the dog .v the cat? what are associated signs based on where deposits are?
    • dog: more in glomerulus --> proteinuria
    • cat (and shar pei): more in medulla --> isosthenuria/azotemia
  17. If there is amyloid only in the medulla, will biopsy find this?
    no, wedge or true cut only samples cortex/glomerulus
  18. what is mean age of amyloidosis in shar pei? is the relationship familial or breed related?
    • 4 yrs; male and female
    • black and fawn
    • familial relationship
  19. Are amyloid signs in Shar peis usually chronic or acute signs? What is "shar pei fever"?
    • chronic
    • SP fever: recurrent acute self-limiting fever and tibiotarsal jt swelling that often resolves on its own
  20. What are clinical findings of abyssinian cats with amyloidosis? 6
    • poor haircoat
    • weight loss
    • lethargy
    • PU/PD
    • dehydration
    • small irregular kidneys
  21. what are lab findings for amyloidosis in abyssinian cats? 6
    • non-regen anemia
    • azotemia
    • hyperphosphatemia
    • metabolic acidosis
    • isosthenuria
    • variable proteinuria
  22. 100% of affected cats w/amyloidosis have medullary or glomerulus involvement?
    • medullary - separates tubular cells from basement membrane
    • (75% have glomerular)
  23. What is signalment for glomerular disease?
    • middle aged-older
    • no gender predilection (cats w/GN usu. male)
    • any breed w/some familial syndromes