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Why specifically do we castrate boars and billys?
- Improve meat flavor
- arrest scent glands in billys
What is a negative factor of castration?
- decreased rate of gain/feed efficiency
- (esp if castrated around 1 yr old there is a large difference)
How old is a horse when you castrate ideally?
Early castration of bulls can increase the incidence of what urinary problem?
In pigs, sheeps and goats when do we typically castrate?
within first 2 weeks of life
what is a possible urgical complication of animals fed spoiled sweet clover?
bleeding out- because the clover has dicumerol which is an anticoagulant
In my PE before castrationg what should I palpate?
testes and inguinal ring
What are advantages to castrating a colt standing?
- -rapid procedure
- -no injury in going down or getting up with anesthesia
- -reduced anesthetic complications
What are the disadvantages of castrating a colt while standing?
- -increased risk to surgeon
- -restraint is not as reliable
- -harder to manage any surgical complications that do occur
What drug used to be used as chemical restraint for castration in horses that we dont use any more? why?
succinylcholine- just a mm relaxer, no pain relief
What local blocks can we use for castration? during which one are you more likely to get your ass kicked?
- -testicular block w/lidocaine
- -spermatic cord block- more dangerous!
Using Xylazine and ketamine combos are common in equine castration, how long do these last?
For bovine castration do we use anesthesia commonly?
no- sometimes local anesthetics
What is one restraint technique i can use when castrating a bull that prevents kicking?
force tail up and over their back so they are less likely to kick
How do i restrain a piglet for castration?
hold piglet by rear legs and cradle body in between knees
Do we use anesthesia on piglets or mature boars? what do we use?
mature Boars- pentobarbitol injection into testicle or pentothal into ear vein
When castrating what is a risk of using just ligatures instead of an emasculator?
more hemmorrhage =(
How many incisions am I making into the scrotum for equine castrations? where are they?
2 incisions on most caudal/ventral scrotum
Is the cutting edge of the emascultor cranial or caudal on the spermatic cord?
- cutting edge is distal
- (we want to crush it first then cut it!)
do i need to keep tension on the spermatic cord when the emasculator is closed?
NO!- no tension when emasculator is closed- this helps it crush better
what is the most common castration post-op problem?
poor drainage predisposing to infection
When do i place a horse in dorsal recumbancy for a castration?
when i suspect the patient is cryptorchid
What is the clotting time for equine blood?
What testical is removed first when a horse is castrated in lateral recumbancy?
remove lower testicle first
Scrotal ablation is more commonly done in what age of horse?
When do we use an emasculatome?
when tetanus is a problem, mainly in cattle
What is the henderson castrating tool and what does it do?
- -a power drill with a clamp w/ 2 jaws attached
- -clamps spermatic cord and twists until it breaks
What are the 2 methods used in bovine castration for the incision placement?
- 1. remove ventral 1/3 of scrotum
- 2. verticle incisions over each testicle
When a bull weighs less than 500 pounds how is the testicle removed from the scrotum?
by traction with the common vaginal tunics intact
When a bull weighs more than 500 pounds how is the testicle removed from the scrotum?
by traction after incision of the common vaginal tunic
What are some disadvantages of using an emasculatome? What specific type of cow operation do you NOT want to use this in?
- -you go get missed castrations/incomplete castrations
- -within one month of castration you cant actually tell if they are castrated because testicles stay in scrotum
- Feedlot operations DO NOT use this
Why is using elastrator bands expensive for castrating bulls?
tetanus is commonly seen with this so tetanus toxoid must be used twice and therefore the bulls must be worked twice (labor $$)
In a study of weight gain in castrated bulls that were banded versus surgical castration who gained more weight?
the banded patients gained more weight, but the difference was pretty minimal
What species will go into shock if castrated the same way bulls are?
Inguinal hernias are common or uncommon in pigs? and how do we check for them?
- inguinal hernias= very common in pigs
- apply pressure to chest and abdomen while retraining the pig- if there is a hernia you will see it then
What species get prophylactic antibiotics after castration? what antibiotic is used?
- procaine penicillin G
Post-castration in a horse what should you tell the owner and how much exercise should they get?
- -tell owner to check horse frequently for 6-8 hrs after surgery
- -restrict exercise for 12 hours then force them to do some exercise
With post op swelling/edema when will i most likely see it? and when will it go away?
- most obvious 3-4 days post-castration
- resolves in 10 days to 2 weeks
T or F: Infection can occur months after castration?
What are the 2 chronic infections we see and what organism causes them?
- 1. Champignon- strep
- 2. Scirrhous- Staph
How much bleeding after sx is okay? when should you worry?
- 1-2 drops every few mins = ok
- bleeding w/fast drip for >15 mins= NOT OK
When i have alot of post op bleeding but i cant find the bleeder what can you do?
pack scrotum with sterile gauze and suture skin to hold gauze in there- remove in 24-48 hours
what 3 breeds are most at risk to develop eventration/herniations?
drafts, standardbreds, tennessee walkers
What are 3 things that predispose a horse to herniation after sx?
- 1. large inguinal rings
- 2. owner has seen herniation in this patient before
- 3. congenital hernia that already corrected with time
what can you do in a castration to help prevent herniation?
close external inguinal ring
Is peritonitis a common complication of castration? what are 2 other very rare complications?
- no- very rare
- damage to penis and hydrocele also very rare
A hydrocele can result when the surgeon leaves what? and why?
too much vaginal tunic left- the tunics heal together and peritoneal fluid keeps accumulating
What does it mean when an owner says a horse has been "proud cut"?
a stallion has been castrated but is still obnoxious
What is a "high flanker"?
cryptorchid horse where the testicle is in the inguinal canal
If a surgeon only removed the testicles but left the epidiymus would the horse be considered castrated?
yes- for effective castration only the genetic material (testicle) has to be removed