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  1. Features of apoptosis
    (irreversible injury)
    • No inflammation
    • ATP mediated
    • Cell shrinkage, nuclear blebbing, karryorhxis, karolysis, pyknosis (basophilia)
    • Ca+2 influx to mediates caspases
  2. Features of intrinsic apoptosis
    • During embryogenesis, atrophy, hormone-induced.
    • Decreased Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic) and increased bax gene
    • Increases mitochondrial permeability which releases cytochrome c to activate cytosolic caspases
  3. Extrinsic apoptosis
    • Cytotoxic T cells (perforin and granzyme B)
    • FasL with FasR (CD95) on cell that needs to die
  4. Enzymatic degradation and protein denaturation of a cell. Apoptosis or necrosis
    • Necrosis
    • inflammatory
    • Cell swelling (unlike apoptosis = cell shrinkage and blebbing)
  5. Forms of irreversible injury
    • Mitochondrial damage
    • Lysosomal rupture
    • PM damage
    • (apoptosis features)
  6. Reversible injury with oxygen
    • cell swelling¬†
    • impaired ATP pump
    • nuclear chromatin clumping
    • fatty change
    • decreased glycogen
    • ribosomal detachment (decreased protein synth)
  7. Area of hypoxia in the heart
    Subendocardial tissue
  8. Where do red infarcts occur?
    • Lung
    • liver
    • intestine
    • reperfusion injury (caused by membrane damage and free radicals)
  9. Difference between septic and cardiogenic/hypovolemic shock
    Septic: damage to blood vessels due to toxins, which decreases TPR, vasodilation causes increased CO

    Cardiogenic: damage to the heart - TPR increases, as blood is sent to the heart to stay there. Low CO
  10. Rolling step for neutrophils
    • E and P selectins on endothelium
    • Sialyl-Lewis on leukocyte
  11. Binding of neutrophils
    • Endothelium: ICAM1
    • WBC: LFA-1 (integrin)
  12. Diapedesis of neutrophils (travels between endothelium)
    Endo and WBC: PECAM-1

    enhanced by platelet-activating factor
  13. Migration of neutrophils
    C5a, LTB4, IL-8, kallikrenin

    enhanced by platelet-activating factor
  14. Pathologies of free radical injury
    • 1. Retinopathy of prematurity
    • 2. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
    • 3. CCl4 in liver (fatty necrosis)
    • 4. acetaminophen
    • 5. iron overload
    • 6. reperfusion injury (after thrombolytic therapy)
  15. Weird bugs that produce granulomas
    • Bartonella hensale (cat scratch dz)
    • Berryliosis
    • Syphilis ( gummas in 3rd phase)
  16. Decreases ESR (fibrinogen coating RBCs to aggregate them)
    • Sickle cell (altered shape)
    • Polycythemia (too many RBCs)
  17. Fe poisoning causing cell death
    acute and chronic sx?
    • peroxidation of cell membrane lipids
    • acute: GI bleeding
    • chronic: anion gap metabolic acidosis, scarring causes GI obstruction
  18. Amyloid in multiple myeloma
    Bence Jones (AL)
  19. Amyloid in secondary amyloidosis (chronic inflammatory conditions)
  20. Amyloid in Alzheimer's
    B-amyloid from APP
  21. Amyloid in dialysis
    B2-microglobulin from MHC-I molecules
  22. Amyloid in cardiac and DM-II
    • cardiac: transthyretin
    • DM: amylin
  23. How can cells invade basement membrane?
    Using metalloproteinases (collagenases + hydrolases)
  24. Desmoplasia
    fibrous tissue formation in response to neoplasm
  25. Anaplasia 
    • Cells lacking differentiation, resembles primitive cells of same tissue
    • undifferentiated maligant cancers, irreversible change
  26. Benign and malignant blood vessel tumor
    • Hemangioma
    • Angiosarcoma
  27. Loss of weight, muscle atrophy, and fatigue that occur in chronic dz due to what factors
    • Cachexia
    • TNF-a, IL-6, and IFN-gamma
  28. Immunodeficieny states and autoimmune dz can give what cancer
  29. Radiation exposure assoc with what cancer
    Papillary thyroid cancer
  30. Genes abl, ret, and erb-B2 are what kind
    • Tyrosine kinase
    • Proto-oncogenes
  31. Gene c-kit is what tumor and what gene product
    • gastrointestinal stromal tumor
    • cytokine receptor, proto-oncogene
  32. BRCA1 and 2 are what kind of gene products
    • DNA repair proteins
    • tumor suppressor genes: need to lose both alleles to express dz.
  33. Bombesin is a tumor marker for
    • Neuroblastoma
    • n-myc (proto-oncogene)
  34. Image Upload 1
    • Cancers:
    • Papillary Ca of thyroid
    • Serous cystadenoCa of ovary
    • Meningioma (brain)
    • Mesothelioma
  35. Mets to the brain
  36. Mets to the liver
    colon > stomach
  37. Mets to the bone
    Prostate (blastic) > breast (lytic) > lung (lytic)
  38. Tumors associated with EPO (2nd polycythemia)
    • Renal cell ca
    • hepatocellular ca
    • pheochromocytoma
  39. Liver toxins and cancer
    Vinyl chloride
    • HCC
    • angiosarcoma
    • angiosarcoma
    • centrilobular necrosis, fatty change
  40. Napthalene (aniline) dyes - cancer?
    TCC of bladder
  41. Carcinoma origin? Sarcoma origin?
    • Epithelial
    • Mesenchymal
Card Set:
2012-10-30 20:43:05

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