Card Set Information

2012-10-29 16:48:58
Hematologic Malignancies

Hematologic Malignancies
Show Answers:

  1. Earliest identifiable cell in the bone marrow.
    Blast cells
  2. Which type of leukemia has Auer rods?
  3. Stains:
  4. Stains:
    Nonspecific esterases
  5. PAS
  6. 2 ways to differentiate AML vs. ALL
    • Stains
    • CD markers and flow
  7. What type of cell has many nucleoli?
  8. Clinical presentation of AML:
    Anemia, Thrombocytopenia, High WBC
  9. What type of leukemia has larger than normal lymphoblasts?
  10. ALL affects:
    AML affects:
    • ALL = children
    • AML = older patients
  11. Which type of cancer do you need to get a sample of CNS to assess for involvement?
  12. Treatment for AML and ALL?
    What does ALL require that AML does not?
    Treat both with 1) leukophoresis, 2) chemo, 3) Bone marrow transplant

    ALL also requires CNS tx or prophylaxis and maintenance thereapy (for 2 years)
  13. Describe the X shaped pattern for describing blood.
    WBC, Hct, platelets
  14. What type of leukemia have super-segmented neutrohpils, blasts, and lots of basophils in the periphery?
    Chronic leukemia
  15. How do you differentiate between CML and CLL?
    • Peripheral Smear
    • Flow cytometry
  16. Which type of leukemia presents with mature myeloid cells on smear with full spectrum of cells in peripheral blood? (including eosinophils and basophils)
  17. Which type of leukemia presents with fatigue, hypermetabolic symptoms (fever, weight loss), early satiety, splenomegaly or asymptomatic?
  18. What type of translocation does CML have?
    What else does it have?
    • 9:22
    • Philadelphia chromosome (first chromosomal abnormality clearly linked to development of leukemia)
  19. How do you treat CML?
    • Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib)
    • Hydrea, interferon, ara-c
    • Bone marrow transplant
  20. Most common leukemia in the western hemisphere?
  21. What type of leukemia has mature lymphoid cells see on peripheral smears?
  22. CML affects?
    CLL affects?
    CML & CLL affect elderly
  23. What leukemia presents with weight loss/night sweat, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly or asymptomatically?
    CLL (basically both chronic leukemias present with splenomegaly)
  24. How do you treat CLL?
    Do you always treat it?
    • Don't always treat CLL because ppl can live a long time with it.
    • Treat with: Observation, Steroids, Chemotherapy, Monoclonal Ab therapy (ratuximab= anti-CD20)
  25. Which leukemia do you treat with monoclonal antibody therapy?
  26. Myeloma clinical presentation?
    • Asymptomatic
    • Anemia
    • Renal failure
    • Hypercalcemia
    • Pathologic fracture/Plasmacytoma
  27. Difference between Smoldering MM and MM?
    Smoldering MM has no symptoms
  28. Globulin Gap =
    GG = Total Protein - Albumin (should be less than 3.5)
  29. Lots of plasma cells, binucleate plasma cells, rouleaux stacking all point towards?
  30. MGUS:
    • M < 3
    • PC > 10%
    • No symptoms
  31. Smoldering MM & MM:
    • M > 3
    • PC < 10
  32. How do you treat MGUS or Smoldering MM?
  33. Tx of MM?
    • Chemo
    • Steroids
    • Radiation tx
    • Bone marrow transplant
  34. How do you diagnose a lump in throat?
    Biopsy, use flow and stains to differentiate between certain types of lymphoma
  35. How do you differentiate NHL vs. HL?
    Flow, stains, H&E appearance (Reed-Sternberg cells)
  36. Reed-Sternberg cells are found in _____ and they are ______.
    Hodgekin's Lymphoma, binucleate
  37. Name 3 B Symptoms
    • Fever
    • Night sweats
    • Weight loss
  38. Clinical Presentation:  Lymphadenopathy, B-symptoms, Pruritis
    Hodgekin's Lymphoma
  39. What do you do after Hodgekin's lymphoma diagnosis?
    Staging (CT, PET, Marrow)
  40. How do you treat HL?
    Radiation, Chemo, Combined modality
  41. 2 main stages of NHL?
    • Low grade/ indolent
    • High grade/ aggressive
  42. Low grade NHL:
    Usually found in?
    Lower or higher stage disease?
    More or fewer B symptoms
    • Old people
    • Higher stage disease
    • Fewer B-symptoms
  43. High grade NHL:
    Found in?
    Lower stage or higher stage?
    More or fewer B symptoms?
    • Younger patients
    • Lower stage
    • More B symptoms
  44. Which grade of NHL do you treat with a curative intent?
    High grade