Geography Test 2
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What are the major greenhouse gases?
- Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
- Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
- Chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs)
- Water vapor
Define the greenhouse effect:
It is a process where radiatively active gases absorb insolation and radiate energy at larger wavelengths, are retained, and delay the loss of infrared wavelengths to space.
Principle components for Earth's climate:
- 1. Insolation
- 2. Temperature
- 3. Air Pressure
- 4. Air Masses
- 5. Precipitation
What is influenced by the climate?
Ecosystems and where ecosystems are located
Name the major World Climates:
- 1. Tropical
- 2. Mesothermal
- 3. Microthermal
- 4. Polar
- 5. Highland
- 6. Dry
What is the most extensive climate?
Where would you expect tropical climates occur?
- Tropical Latitudes- along the equator
Where do you expect mesothermal (mild winters climates to occur?
- Mid-latitudes above and below the equator
- (Where people generally live.)
Where do you expect microthermal (cold winters) climates to occur?
- Mid- and high latitudes
Where do you expect polar climates to occur?
- High latitudes and polar regions
Where do you expect highland climates to occur?
- High elevation at all latitudes
Where do you expect dry climates to occur?
- Tropical, subtropical hot, and mid-latitude cold
What causes natural climate change?
Volcanoes, variations in sun exposure (insolation), continent movement
What are Anthropogenic/human-caused climate changes?
CO2 (fossil fuel emissions)
What is the current level of CO2 (carbon dioxide)?
CO2 plays what role in global warming?
It acts as an isolator and causes air temperatures to rise.
What countries were a part of the Kyoto Protocol?
Germany, Canada, developing countries US was NOT in it.
Debate about climate change is that
there is a concensus among scientists but not necessarily with the public.
A goal that was set in place to decrease CO2 emissions that is actually failing. No one is really following it any longer.
What are associated problems with climate change?
Sea levels rising, extreme weather, food production decreases in developing countries while it increases in developed countries.
What are the effects of climate change?
Greenhouse effect (works as insolator), temperatures rising,
What is a geologic time scale?
It is a summary timeline of all Earth's history.
What eon period is 88.3% of Earth's history?
What eon includes the Archaen and Proterozoic time periods?
What eon includes the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic time periods?
What is the asthenosphere comparable to?
What is the uppermost mantle like?
What two layers make up the lithosphere?
Upper most mantle and crust
What are the two types of crust and which is older?
Continental and Oceanic ; continental is older because Oceanic crust is constantly being created and destroyed
Which is less dense, continental or oceanic crust?
Identify the layers of Earth's interior:
- Center, Inner core, Outer core, Lower mantle, Upper mantle, Asthenosphere, Lithosphere, and Crust
Explains certain vertical movements of Earth's crust and is caused by buoyancy and balance.
(When there is weight put upon that crust then it will dip and then vice versa. Takes a long time for crust to recover. Thousands of years.)
Normal faulting has to do with raising and lowering of crust called Horst and Graben.
Anticline will result when pressure is added in a fault it tends to go:
up, like ridges
Syncline will result when pressure is added in a fault and it tends to go
down, like dips
This type of rock solidicies and crystallizes from a molten state and forms from magma. Ex: granite, basalt, rhyolite
This type of rock involves lithification processes of cementation, compaction and hardening of sediments
This type of rock is andy rock that can be turned into this by going through significant physical and chemical changes under pressure and increases temperature.
What causes sea-floor spreading?
Caused by upwelling of basaltic magma along mid-ocean ridge
This mechanism that builds this mountain chain and drives continental movement
What causes mid-ocean ridges?
Divergent plate boundaries
Subamarine mountain ranges and are a direct result of upwelling flows of magma from hot areas in upper mantle and asthenosphere.
Includes the processes of upwelling of magma:
This process occurs internally powered by heat energy from within the planet:
This process occurs externally and is powered by insolation and influenced by gravity:
What do endogenic and exogenic process do together?
Together these systems work together to produce Earth's diverse landscape.
Approximately how old is the Earth?
~4.6 billion years
6 Major extinctions on Earth:
- 1. Ordovician
- 2. Devonian
- 3. Permian (largest extinction)
- 4. Triassic
- 5. Cretaceous
- 6. Quaternary (current and human caused)
What are the three types of crust movements/plate boundaries?
Divergent, Convergent, Transform
This plate boundary has converging plates and produces a subduction zone and features mountains, volcanoes, and earthquakes.
Convergent ----> <----
This plate boundary has diverging plates at mid-ocean ridges.
Divergent <------- --------->
This plate boundary has plates that move laterally past each other between sea-floor spreading centers
- Transform <----------
________ ___________ occurs when any type of rock is subjected to powerful stress by tectonic forces, gravity and the weight of overlying rocks.
There are three types of stress:
- tension (stretching)
- compression (shortening)
- shear (twisting or tearing)
Orogenesis is the geologic term for what?
This might occur by the capture of migrating exotic terranes, addition by accretion to the continental margins, or the intrusion of granitic magmas to form plutons and results in accumulation of material that becomes a thickening crust:
How do rivers erode and move sediment?
Hydraulic action and abrasion.
What is a watershed?
Acts as a collection system for water and sediment from many subsystems.
Name a few of the major drainage patterns in the U.S:
Gulf/Atlantic drainage, Hudson Bay/Arctic drainage, Pacific drainage, Arctic drainage, North Atlantic drainage.
When ocean to ocean plates comes together there tends to be a
chain of volcanos
When ocean plates and continental plates comes together, continental plate will go over ocean and will create
Continental plate on continental plate causes
large mountain ranges
What type of fault is the San Andreas?
The measurement scale of earthquakes is not linear based.
Types of volcanos:
- Flood Basalts
- Shield - Hawaii
- Cinder Cone - ash, non explosive
- Composite - layers
- Caldera - High explosive
What type of process is weathering?
Physical weathering is found in dry/cold climates and happens by:
frost action (expands by 9%), salt crystal (dissolves 1-5%), pressure jointing, thermal expand
Chemical weather occurs in wet climates and happens by
hydration (sponge), hydrolysis (chemically reacts), Oxidation (metals react with oxygen that causes rock to be brittle), dissolution (dissolves into water)
Rock falls would occur in
dry climates and would move very fast
Flows would occur in wet environments and would be
medium to fast in speed
Slides would occur in ________ climates and have a _________ speed.
Wet to dry ; moderate
Creeps would be very _____ and would occur in both wet and dry conditions.
Creeps occur because
of thawing (increase in temp)
Angle of repose is
the maximum steepness until a rock falls.
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