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What did the Romans adopt from the Etruscans?
What did the Romans adopt from the Carthaginians?
What did the Romans adopt from the Egyptians?
What did the Romans adopt from the Greeks?
Art, sculpture, drama, literature (think Aeneid)
What were some of the characteristics of the Romans that influenced the way they adapted the ideas and practices of others?
They were always open minded and interested in findings ways to be more practical. (No philosophy). They adapted more effectively than anyone else.
What did Emperor Constantine do to promote engineers?
“We need as may engineers as possible. As there is a lcak of them,invite to this study persons of about 18 years who have already studied the necessary sciences. Relieve the parents of taxes and grant [hem] sufficient means”
In arches, the weight pushes outward requiring what?
Lateral support or buttresses
What does Basilica stand for in Latin?
What was the first aquaduct in rome built without?
These 3 societies (Egyptians, Harappans and Assyrians) were the first to use what?
2nd tallest Roman structure (6 ft shorter than coliseum).
Largest Roman arches
First tier used as a bridge (pont)
Part of an Aqueduct feeding Nimes
~30 miles long (mostly underground)
Gradient: 1ft / 3,000 ft
Delivered 5 million gallons per day
Pont du Gard
This is the Largest sports edifice ever erected (seated ~270,000)
used for gladiator/animal games
Arena: Latin for sand
Early it was flooded for navel reenactments
How did the Romans contribute to concrete?
They added volcanic ash, when combined with lime, provided a strong bonding agent.
Built in 2nd century by Hadrian as temple to all Roman gods
Christian church in 609 A.D.
Since Renaissance, also tomb
Oculus is only source of light
When Michelangelo first saw it in the early 1500s, he proclaimed, “It is of angelic and not human design.”
world’s largest unreinforced concrete dome
5,000 tons of laid concrete in dome
drum is 28 ft thick
used earth and timber for molding (today air-forming is used)
16, 60-ton granite columns, from Egypt
Influenced cathedrals all over Europe including the Basilica in Rome
Model for Jefferson Memorial
Model for US capitol building and many other state capitol buildings
Pantheon--a Dome on Drum (also, a sphere within a cube)
Used for military and commerce
defined travel routes for later Europe
What did Roman cities contain?
- commercial center
- Bathrooms with baths
Which scientist came up with:
concept of cone vision
Rules of reflection
laws of refraction
Which scientist came up with:
Purpose of organs
Medical and mental health
Observations and notes assisted diagnosis
Which scientist's medical texts were used until about 1700?
Which scientist came up with the 4 body humors?
What were the 4 temperament types (based on body humors)?
- Phlegmatic = relaxed and quiet
- Choleric = Ambitious and leader-like
- Sanguine = pleasure-seeking and sociable
- Melancholic = introverted and thoughtful
Who were the Four Temperament Types (based on four body humors) first articulated by?
Hippocrates, then Adopted by Galen
Georgics (“pertaining to agriculture” in latin)
The Aeneid (epic poem in hexameter)
Poet and friend to Virgil
Explains Roman life and festivals
Metamorphoses (Greek Gods and love)
This author was a Historian
These two authors are considered later empire literature
- Plutarch (46-120 A.D.) - Historian, biographer, essayist.
- Marcus Aurelius (121- 180 A.D. --Meditations
Stoic philosopher, statesman, advisor to Nero, dramatist, and, in one work, humorist
-explanation of “everything natural”
-Elephants fear mice
-Ostrich head in sand
died at Vesuvius from asphyxiation
“True glory consists in doing what deserves to be written; in writing what deserves to be read.”
Pliny the Elder
What were roman paintings like?
- Frescos decorated villas
- Mosaics used extensively on floors
What was Roman sculpture like?
- copies of Greek works
- Individual busts popular
- Sarcophagus (coffin) art
What are 3 parts of the Roman legacy of language?
- Roman alphabet
- Romance languages
- many phrases from Latin in other languages
What are 2 parts of the Roman legacy of Government?
- protected individuals from one another and the state
- Rule of law
Who said, “Ask not what your country can do for you, but rather what you can do for your country”?
What are 3 parts of the Roman legacy of Government organization?
- Bicameral legislative government
- Checks and balances
- Government values
What are 4 parts of the Roman legacy science?
- Respect for actual data
- making theories work
- Growth of engineering as a respected discipline