Tech 201 Ch 13 - Roman Science, Technology, Art

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Tech 201 Ch 13 - Roman Science, Technology, Art
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2012-10-29 19:12:12
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  1. What did the Romans adopt from the Etruscans?
    Arch
  2. What did the Romans adopt from the Carthaginians?
    Quinquereme
  3. What did the Romans adopt from the Egyptians?
    Calendar
  4. What did the Romans adopt from the Greeks?
    Art, sculpture, drama, literature (think Aeneid)
  5. What were some of the characteristics of the Romans that influenced the way they adapted the ideas and practices of others?
    They were always open minded and interested in findings ways to be more practical. (No philosophy). They adapted more effectively than anyone else.
  6. What did Emperor Constantine do to promote engineers?
    “We need as may engineers as possible. As there is a lcak of them,invite to this study persons of about 18 years who have already studied the necessary sciences. Relieve the parents of taxes and grant [hem] sufficient means”
  7. In arches, the weight pushes outward requiring what?
    Lateral support or buttresses
  8. What does Basilica stand for in Latin?
    Royal Building
  9. What was the first aquaduct in rome built without?
    Mortar
  10. These 3 societies (Egyptians, Harappans and Assyrians)  were the first to use what?
    Aquaducts
  11. Building that:
    2nd tallest Roman structure (6 ft shorter than coliseum).
    Largest Roman arches
    First tier used as a bridge (pont)
    Part of an Aqueduct feeding Nimes
    ~30 miles long (mostly underground)
    Gradient: 1ft / 3,000 ft
    Delivered 5 million gallons per day
    Pont du Gard
  12. This is the Largest sports edifice ever erected (seated ~270,000)
    Circus Maximus
  13. This building:
    seated 60,000
    used for gladiator/animal games
    Arena: Latin for sand
    Early it was flooded for navel reenactments
    Coliseum
  14. How did the Romans contribute to concrete?
    They added volcanic ash, when combined with lime, provided a strong bonding agent.
  15. Building that:
    Built in 2nd century by Hadrian as temple to all Roman gods
    Christian church in 609 A.D.
    Since Renaissance, also tomb
    Oculus is only source of light
    When Michelangelo first saw it in the early 1500s, he proclaimed, “It is of angelic and not human design.”
    Pantheon
  16. Building that:
    world’s largest unreinforced concrete dome
    5,000 tons of laid concrete in dome
    drum is 28 ft thick
    used earth and timber for molding (today air-forming is used)
    16, 60-ton granite columns, from Egypt
    Influenced cathedrals all over Europe including the Basilica in Rome
    Model for Jefferson Memorial
    Model for US capitol building and many other state capitol buildings
    Pantheon--a Dome on Drum (also, a sphere within a cube)
  17. Used for military and commerce
    53,000 miles 
    defined travel routes for later Europe
    Multiple-layers thick
    Roads
  18. What did Roman cities contain?
    • forum
    • theater
    • circus
    • temples
    • commercial center
    • Sewers
    • Bathrooms with baths
  19. Which scientist came up with:
    concept of cone vision
    Rules of reflection
    laws of refraction
    Ptolemy
  20. Which scientist came up with:
    Purpose of organs
    Medical and mental health
    Observations and notes assisted diagnosis
    Galen
  21. Which scientist's medical texts were used until about 1700?
    Galen
  22. Which scientist came up with the 4 body humors?
    Galen
  23. What were the 4 temperament types (based on body humors)?
    • Phlegmatic = relaxed and quiet
    • Choleric = Ambitious and leader-like
    • Sanguine = pleasure-seeking and sociable
    • Melancholic = introverted and thoughtful
  24. Who were the Four Temperament Types (based on four body humors) first articulated by?
    Hippocrates, then Adopted by Galen
  25. Author of:
    Georgics (“pertaining to agriculture” in latin)
    The Aeneid (epic poem in hexameter)
    Virgil
  26. Poet and friend to Virgil
    Horace
  27. Explains Roman life and festivals
    Metamorphoses (Greek Gods and love)
    Ovid
  28. This author was a Historian
    Livy
  29. These two authors are considered later empire literature
    • Plutarch (46-120 A.D.) - Historian, biographer, essayist.
    • Marcus Aurelius (121- 180 A.D. --Meditations
  30. Stoic philosopher, statesman, advisor to Nero, dramatist, and, in one work, humorist
    Seneca
  31. Natural history:
    -explanation of “everything natural”
    -Elephants fear mice
    -Ostrich head in sand
    died at Vesuvius from asphyxiation
    “True glory consists in doing what deserves to be written; in writing what deserves to be read.”
    Pliny the Elder
  32. What were roman paintings like?
    • Frescos decorated villas
    • Mosaics used extensively on floors
  33. What was Roman sculpture like?
    • copies of Greek works
    • Individual busts popular
    • Sarcophagus (coffin) art
  34. What are 3 parts of the Roman legacy of language?
    • Roman alphabet
    • Romance languages
    • many phrases from Latin in other languages
  35. What are 2 parts of the Roman legacy of Government?
    • protected individuals from one another and the state
    • Rule of law
  36. Who said, “Ask not what your country can do for you, but rather what you can do for your country”?
    Cicero
  37. What are 3 parts of the Roman legacy of Government organization?
    • Bicameral legislative government
    • Checks and balances
    • Government values
  38. What are 4 parts of the Roman legacy science?
    • Experiments
    • Respect for actual data
    • making theories work
    • Growth of engineering as a respected discipline

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