Clinical Patho F2012 Q5

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prestoncas
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180684
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Clinical Patho F2012 Q5
Updated:
2012-10-29 22:47:33
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Baker College Flint Clinical Patho Q5 Fall 2012
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Baker College Flint Clinical Patho Q5 Fall 2012
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  1. Ranchos Los Amigos Scale
    • Level I – No Response
    • Level II – Generalized Response
    • Level III – Localized Response
    • Level IV – Confused-Agitated
    • Level V – Confused-Inappropriate
    • Level VI – Confused Appropriate
    • Level VII – Automatic Appropriate
    • Level VIII – Purposeful Appropriate
  2. Concussion vs Contusion
    • Concussion
    • reversible
    • caused from excessive movement of the brain
    • Contusion
    • typically not reversible
    • caused from blunt force trauma
  3. Closed vs. Open head injury
    • Closed
    • No Fracture
    • Brain slams into skull
    • Open
    • Fracture
    • Trauma
  4. Coup vs. Counter-coup
    • Coup
    • injury to the brain at point of skull injury
    • Counter-Coup
    • Injury to brain opposite to skull injury
    • Does not always show up immediately on MRI
  5. Diffuse Axonal Injury
    • Occurs from rotational forces
    • axons retract into brain
    • Causes coma and poor recovery
  6. Hypoxic
    • Lack of O2 flow
    • Poor cognitive function after
  7. Types of TBI
    • Primary
    • result of direct injury
    • Secondary
    • Not because of direct brain injury
    • secondary to ICP, swelling, hematoma....
  8. Epidural Hematoma
    • Between dura mater and skull
    • occurs most in temporal lobe
  9. Subdural Hematoma
    • between dura and arachnoid
    • occurs from small leak in blood vessel
  10. Subarachnoid Hematoma
    usually goes undiagnosed and heals itself
  11. Intracerebral Hematoma
    Occurs with contusions and shearing between sulci and gyri
  12. Spinothalamic
    pain & temperature
  13. Fasciculus Gracile
    Touch, pressure and conscious joint sense
  14. Dorsal spinocerebellar
    Proprioception
  15. Ventral cerebellar
    provides input to the cerebellum
  16. Corticospinal
    voluntary skilled movement
  17. Tectospinal
    reflex postural movement in response to visual stimuli
  18. Rubrospinal
    faciliatate activity of flexor muscle and inhibits extensors
  19. Vestibulospinal tract
    under the influence of the ear and cerebellum in maintenance of balance
  20. SCI due to fracture
    • due to high velocoty injuries
    • fragment of the bone becomes lodged in vertebral foramen
  21. SCI due to dislocation
    One vertebrae moves on another causing crushing of compression of the spinal cord
  22. SCI due to compression
    high vertical or axial force
  23. SCI due to spinal cord comprimise
    due to penetrating force such as gunshot or stab
  24. Flexion as MOI for SCI
    • most common
    • due to head on collision
  25. Compression as MOI for SCI
    • vertical/axial blow to the head
    • ruptured disc or bony fragment lodging into spinal cord
  26. Hyperextension as MOI for SCI
    • Fall with chin hitting stationary object
    • more common in cervical spine
  27. Flexion/rotation as MOI for SCI
    • Pressure from posterior toward anterior at an angle
    • facet joint either subluxes or dislocates
  28. Spinal shock
    • immediate response resulting from disconnect between brain and spinal cord
    • absence of all reflexes and sensation
    • lasts 24-48 hours
  29. Complete vs incomplete
    • complete
    • no sensory or motor function below the level of lesion
    • rare
    • incomplete
    • preserved some motion below level of lesion
  30. central cord syndrome
    • More loss of sensation in arms than in legs
    • occurs in hyperextension
  31. anterior cord syndrome
    • Occurs most when head is forced into flexion
  32. Brown Sequard Syndrome
    • typically seen in penetration
  33. Autonomic Dysreflexia
    • occurs if t5-t7
    • Forces body into FoF until stimulus is removed

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