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Slide 1 Cognitive behavioral therapy
It is believed that most human emotions and behaviors, whether rational or irrational, functional or dysfunctional, are largely the result of what people think, imagine, or believe.
The essence of CBT is to help clients change their cognitive processes in a way that enables them to overcome their maladaptive behaviors.
Slide 1 Bullet 1 cont'd
ABC theory of emotions: A=activating event/ situation, B= belief of the situation, C= emotional consequence of the thoughts/ beliefs. If B is irrational thought of A then it leads to irrational consequences and the client will experience A as extremely stressful, upsetting, or catastrophic. In CBT, the therapist assists the client dispute the irrational part of the thoughts and replace with raional beliefs, which should lead to a new evaluation of the problem and activating event.
Slide 1: bullet 2: origin of CBT
It all started with a greek philosopher who observed that people are not disturbed by things but by their perceptions of things. In the 60s, this was tested for purposes of treatment. It has become a third force between psychoanalysis and behaviorism approaches.
CBT holds that thinking shapes behavior. And we have perceptions based on what we have learned through observation and modeling(social learning theory).
Slide 1: bullet 3: Effective
Extensive research has shown that CBT in group format for adolescent substance abusers is most effective because it addresses not only the event that has caused them to react in a negative way but it addresses the thought behind it.
What makes it differ from individual CBT is the social force of cohesiveness.
Slide 2: Interventions
These are some of interventions used with adolescent substance abusers, and although they all have their positive side the most effective has been group therapy because during adolescence they rely heavily on their peers.
Slide 3: Research bullet 2
Meaning, if only antisocial adolescent substance abusers are placed together in a group it doesn't necessarily mean that they will have positive outcomes because they will feed off of each others maladaptive behaviors. It is encouraged to consider putting a mixture of types of adolescents into the group so there's a higher possibility of positive outcome.
Slide 3: Research bullet 4
There are factors in group that assist adolescent substance abusers comply with treatment. These are the realization that others share similar problems, the development of socializing techniques, role modeling, rehearsal, and peer/ therapist feedback.
Slide 4: Effectiveness bullet 2
There are 13 principles that The National Institute on Drug Abuse has identified that should inform if the treatment is effective:
- (1) No single treatment is appropriate for all individuals.
- (2) Treatment should be readily available.
- (3) Effective treatment needs to attend to the multiple needs of the individual, not just his/her drug abuse.
- (4) An individual’s treatment and service plan must be assessed often and modified to meet the person’s changing needs.
- (5) Remaining in treatment for an adequate period of time is critical for treatment effectiveness.
- (6) Counseling and other behavior therapies are critical components of virtually all effective treatments for addiction.
- (7) For certain types of disorders, medications are an important element of treatment, especially when combined with counseling and other behavioral therapies.
- (8) Addicted or drug-abusing individuals with
- coexisting mental disorders should have both disorders treated in an integrated way.
- (9) Medical management of withdrawal syndrome is only the first stage of addiction treatment and by itself does little to change long-term drug use.
- (10) Treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective.
- (11) Possible drug use during treatment must be monitored continuously.
- (12) Treatment programs should provide assessment for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases, and should provide counseling to
- help patients modify or change behaviors that place themselves or others at risk of infection.
- (13) As is the case with other chronic, relapsing
- diseases, recovery from drug addiction can be a long-term process and typically requires multiple episodes of treatment, including “booster” sessions and other forms of continuing care.