In Piaget's theory, actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.
Piagetian concept of the incorporation of new information into existing knowledge.
Piagetiain concept of adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences.
Piaget's concept of grouping isolated behaviors into a higher-order, more smoothly functioning cognitive system; the grouping or arranging of items into categories.
A mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next. The shift occurs as children experience cognitive conflict in trying to understand the world. Eventually, they resolve the conflict and reach a balance of thought.
The first of Piaget's stages, which lasts from birth to about 2 years of age; infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with motoric actions
The Piagetian term for one of an infant's most important accomplishments: understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched.
This occurs when infants make the mistake of selecting the familiar hiding place rather than the new hiding place as they progress into substage 4 in Piaget's sensorimotor stage.
States that infants are born with domain-specific innate knowledge systems, such as those involving space, number sense, object permanence, and language
Core knowledge approach
Internalized actions that allow children to do mentally what before they had done only physically.
The second Piagetian developmental stage, which lasts from about 2 to 7 years of age, when children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings
The first substage of preoperational thought, occurring roughly between the ages of 2 and 4. In this substage, the young child gains the ability to represent mentally an object that is not present.
Symbolic function substage
An important feature of preoperational thought: the inability to dinstinguish between one's own and someone else's perspective
A facet of preoperational thought: the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action
The second substage of preoperational thought, occurring between 4 and 7 years of age when children begin to use primitive reasoning
Intuitive thought substage
Focusing attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of others
The idea that altering an object's or substance's appearance does not change its basic properties.
Piaget's third stage, which lasts from 7 to 11 years of age, when children can perform concrete operations, and logical reasoning replaces intuitive reasoning as long as the reasoning can be applied to specific examples.
Concrete operational stage
Piaget's concept that similar abilities do not appear at the same time within a stage of development.
The concrete operation that involves ordering stimuli along a quantitative dimension (such as length)
Principle that says if a relation holds between a first object and a second object, and holds between the second object and a third object, then it holds between the first object and the third object.
Piaget's fourth and final stage, which occurs between the ages of 11 and 15, when individuals move beyond concrete experiences and think in more abstract and logical ways
Formal operational stage
Piaget's formal operational concept that adolescents have teh cognitive ability to develop hypotheses about ways to solve problems and can systematically deduce which is the best path to follow in solving the problem.
The heightened self-consciousness of adolescents, which is reflected in adolescents' beliefs that others are as interested in them as they are in themselves
The aspect of adolescent egocentrism that involves attention-getting behavior motivated by a desire to be noticed and visible
The part of adolescent egocentrism that involves adolescents sense of uniqueness and invincibility
Vygotsky's term for tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but can be mastered with assistance from adults or more-skilled children
Zone of proximal development
Vygotsky used this term to describe the practice of changing the level of support provided over the course of a teaching session, with the more-skilled person adjusting guidance to fit the child's current performance level
An emphasis on the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction. Vygotsky's theory reflects this approach