An approach that focuses on the ways children process information about their world – how they manipulate information, monitor it, and create strategies to deal with it.
The mechanism by which information gets into memory
The ability to process information with little or no effort
Creation of new procedures for processing information
Cognition about cognition, or "knowing about knowing"
Concentrating and focusing mental resources
Focusing on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant
Concentrating on more than one activity at the same time
The ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time.
Involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.
Individuals focusing on the same object or event; requires the ability to track another's behavior, one person directing another's attention, and reciprocal interaction.
Retention of information over time
Limited-capacity memory system in which information is usually retained for up to 30 seconds, assuming there is no rehearsal of the information. Using rehearsal, individuals can keep the information longer.
A relatively permanent and unlimited memory
A mental "workbench" where individuals manipulate and assemble information when making decisions, solving problems, and comprehending written and spoken language.
States that when people reconstruct information, they fit it into information that already exists in their minds.
Mental frameworks that organize concepts and information
States that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations: (1) verbatim memory trace; and (2) fuzzy trace, or gist. According to this theory, older children's better memory is attributed to the fuzzy traces created by extracting the gist of information
Fuzzy trace theory
Memory without conscious recollection; memory of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically
Conscious memory and facts and experiences
Manipulating and transforming information in memory, usually to form concepts, reason, think critically, and solve problems.
Thinking reflectively and productively, and evaluating the evidence.
Being alert, mentally present, and cognitively flexible while going through life's everyday activites and tasks.
Knowledge about memory
Awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others.