Chapter 7

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Anonymous
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180709
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Chapter 7
Updated:
2012-10-29 23:47:37
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Information Processing
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  1. An approach that focuses on the ways children process information about their world – how they manipulate information, monitor it, and create strategies to deal with it.
    Information-processing approach
  2. The mechanism by which information gets into memory
    Encoding
  3. The ability to process information with little or no effort
    Automaticity
  4. Creation of new procedures for processing information
    Strategy construction
  5. Cognition about cognition, or "knowing about knowing"
    Metacognition
  6. Concentrating and focusing mental resources
    Attention
  7. Focusing on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant
    Selective attention
  8. Concentrating on more than one activity at the same time
    Divided attention
  9. The ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time. 
    Sustained attention
  10. Involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.
    Executive attention
  11. Individuals focusing on the same object or event; requires the ability to track another's behavior, one person directing another's attention, and reciprocal interaction.
    Joint attention
  12. Retention of information over time
    Memory
  13. Limited-capacity memory system in which information is usually retained for up to 30 seconds, assuming there is no rehearsal of the information. Using rehearsal, individuals can keep the information longer.
    Short-term memory
  14. A relatively permanent and unlimited memory
    Long-term memory
  15. A mental "workbench" where individuals manipulate and assemble information when making decisions, solving problems, and comprehending written and spoken language.
    Working memory
  16. States that when people reconstruct information, they fit it into information that already exists in their minds.
    Schema theory
  17. Mental frameworks that organize concepts and information
    Schemas
  18. States that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations: (1) verbatim memory trace; and (2) fuzzy trace, or gist. According to this theory, older children's better memory is attributed to the fuzzy traces created by extracting the gist of information
    Fuzzy trace theory
  19. Memory without conscious recollection; memory of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically
    Implicit memory
  20. Conscious memory and facts and experiences
    Explicity memory
  21. Manipulating and transforming information in memory, usually to form concepts, reason, think critically, and solve problems.
    Thinking
  22. Thinking reflectively and productively, and evaluating the evidence.
    Crtitical thinking
  23. Being alert, mentally present, and cognitively flexible while going through life's everyday activites and tasks.
    Mindfulness
  24. Knowledge about memory
    Metamemory
  25. Awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others.
    Theory of mind

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