Pharmacology Final

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r_webby
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18072
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Pharmacology Final
Updated:
2010-05-10 01:42:15
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Drugs Know
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Drugs to Know
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  1. Albuterol
    • Short acting beta 2 agonist
    • used for rescue relief
    • lasts 3-4 hours
  2. Salmeterol
    • Long acting beta 2 agonist
    • used prophylactically
    • lasts over 12 hours
  3. Cromolyn
    • acts to inhibit Mast Cell production of inflammatory mediators (histamine/leukotrienes)
    • can prevent attacks but not revive from them
  4. Glucocorticoids
    • inhibit synthesis of Arachidonic Acid (precursor for Leukotrienes)
    • but also inhibit cyclooxygenase (decreasing mucus secretion)
    • inhibit cation transporter: prevents histamine release
  5. Zileution
    • blocks leukotriene synthesis
    • prevents bronchoconstriction and inflamation
  6. Zafirlukast
    • blocks leukotriene receptor
    • prevents bronchoconstriction and inflamation
  7. Penicillin G/V
    • Target: most Gram + and Gram - cocci
    • susceptible to Beta-Lactamase
    • Time Dependent
    • Bactericidal
  8. Naficillin
    • an anti-staphylococcal penicillin
    • Target: most Gram + and Gram - cocci (same as Pen. G/V)
    • resistant to the staphylococcal Beta-Lactamase (except for MRSA)
    • Time Dependent
    • Bactericidal
  9. Amoxicillin
    • More active them Penicillin G/V
    • Target: most Gram + and Gram - cocci (same as other penicillins)
    • Time Dependent
    • Bactericidal
  10. Piperacillin
    • Target: a broader range then other penicillins
    • Time Dependent
    • Bactericidal
  11. Cefazolin
    • First Generation
    • Target: Gram Positive (other then S. Pneumoniae)
    • very active
    • susceptible to Beta-Lactamase
    • Time Dependent
    • Bactericidal
  12. Cefuroxime
    • Second Generation
    • Target: some Gram Positive (including S. Pneumoniae) and respiratory Gram Negative
    • "Respiratory Cephalosporins"
    • Time Dependent
    • Bactericidal
  13. Ceftriaxone
    • Third Generation
    • Target: Gram Negative (other then Enterobacter)
    • Can penetrate the BBB
    • Time Dependent
    • Bactericidal
  14. Aztreonam
    • Target: narrow spectrum aerobic Gram Negative
    • a Beta-Lactam
    • may supress Beta-Lactamase
    • Time Dependent
    • Bactericidal
  15. Imipenem
    • Target: broad spectrum (Gram Positive and Negative)
    • Will increase Beta-Lactamase expression
    • used synergistic with aminoglycosides
    • Time Dependent
    • Bactericidal
  16. Vancomycin
    • Target: Gram Positive
    • administered IV (except for C. difficile)
    • Time Dependent
    • Bactericidal
  17. Erythromycin/ Azithromycin (macrolides)
    • Target: Extended Spectrum (both +/-)
    • prevent the trans-location of tRNA
    • Inhibits the function of a specific P450 (be careful w/ other drugs)
    • Bacteriostatic
    • Acts just like Clindamycin (don't use together)
  18. Clindamycin
    • Target: Extended Spectrum (both +/-)
    • prevent the trans-location of tRNA
    • Inhibits the function of a specific P450 (be careful w/ other drugs)
    • Bacteriostatic
    • acts just like Erythromycin/ Azithromycin (don't use together)
  19. Doxycycline (a tetracycline)
    • Target: broad spectrum
    • Binds to ribosome to prevent tRNA binding
    • Bacteriostatic
    • inhibits bone growth and stains teeth
  20. Gentamicin (an aminoglycoside)
    • Target: aerobic gram negative (gram positive w/ a beta lactam to give access)
    • block initiation, translocation and function of ribosomal complex
    • Bactericidal
    • concentration dependent (side effects are time and concentration dependent)
  21. Metronidazole
    • Target: broad spectrum (plus some parasites)
    • metabolites (created only in targets) create DNA strand breaks
    • bactericidal; concentration dependent
    • may be carcinogenic
  22. Ciprofloxacin
    • Target: aerobic gram negative
    • binds to and inhibits DNA gyrase
    • bactericidal
    • damages developing cartilage
  23. Levofloxacin
    • Target: broad spectrum
    • binds to and inhibits DNA gyrase
    • bactericidal
    • damages developing cartilage
  24. Sulfamethoxazole/ Trimethoprin
    • Target: broad spectrum
    • inhibit (different) steps in folic acid synthesis
    • bacteriostatic
  25. Rifampin
    • Target: broad spectrum
    • inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase preventing transcription
    • Bactericidal
    • inhibits oral contraceptives, hepatotoxic, colors fluids red
  26. Isoniazid
    • Target: mycobacterium
    • inhibits an enzyme needed for mycolic acid synthesis
    • prodrug is activated only by mycobacteria
  27. Insulin Lispro
    • Ultra Short Acting Insulin
    • 15-30 min onset
    • 1-2 hour max
    • 4-6 hour duration
  28. Regular Insulin
    • Short Acting Insulin
    • 30-60 min onset
    • 2-3 hour max
    • 6-8 hour duration
  29. NPH Insulin
    • Intermediate Acting Insulin
    • 2-4 hour onset
    • 4-6 hour max
    • 14-18 hour duration
  30. Insulin Glargin
    • Long Acting Insulin
    • delayed onset with a long-term effect (24 hours)
  31. Pramlintide
    • A synthetic Amylin
    • -decreases gastric mobility
    • -decreases appetite
    • -lowers glucagon secretion
  32. Metformin
    • Increases the hepatic response to insulin
    • the first choice drug to increase insulin response
    • cannot produce hypoglycemia
  33. Rosiglitazone/Pioglitazone
    • Promotes insulin induced glucose uptake
    • often used with meformin
    • produces edema (not safe for bad heart)
    • doesn't produce hypoglycemia
  34. Glimepiride
    • increases insulin secretion (used for type 2 w/ decreased insulin production)
    • a sulfonylurea (sufa drug)--> sulfa allergy
    • chronic use will develop a tolerance
    • may produce hypoglycemia (via insulin)
  35. Repaglinide
    • increases insulin secretion (used for type 2 w/ decreased insulin production)
    • shorter duration and faster onset then Glimepiride
    • taken before meals
    • used primarily when Glimepiride is not effective
    • may produce hypoglycemia (via insulin)
  36. Exanatide
    • increases insulin secretion and liver response (a drop in glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis)
    • an incretin mimetic
    • must be injected
    • may produce hypoglycemia (via insulin)
  37. Sitagliptin
    • increases insulin secretion and liver response (a drop in glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis)
    • increases incretin levels by preventing breakdown (inhibits DPP-4)
    • may be taken orally
    • may produce hypoglycemia (via insulin)
  38. Acarbose
    • prevents oligosaccharide breakdown in GI by inhibiting intestinal enzyme
    • less carbohydrates entering body --> lower systemic glucose
    • produces gas

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