collier test 5

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collier test 5
2012-11-05 10:15:41
collier test

collier test 5
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  1. Ratio
    • Real measurements
    • ex. height, weight, speed, velocity, mass, area, volume
    • there is a true 0 point
    • this means that division and multiplication are meaningful
    • experimental psychology tends to use ratio measurements
  2. Experimental psychology ratios
    • accuracy
    • reaction time
    • heartrate
    • brain waves
    • response rates of pigeon or rate in a Skinner box
  3. Interval
    • quantitative variable
    • like ratio measurement
    • There is NO true 0 point
    • Sums and differences are meaningful, but not multiplication and division (ratios)
  4. Interval examples
    • temperature scales, including Celsius and FAhrenheit
    • clock or calender time, because we dont know when time started
  5. Interval level measurements
    • In testing, personality and social psychology we frequently use questionnaire and test responses such as Liket (agree-disagree) scales
    • usually convert these to numbers and use math on them, so we are treating them as interval scales.
    • may be considered ordinal scales
  6. Nominal
    • categories without order
    • there are no numbers
    • sometimes we use numbers as categories
    • ex. social security numbers
    • numbers on football jersies
    • telephone numbers
  7. how do you do statistics with nominal variables
    it requires a trick, count the number of items in each category
  8. Ordinal
    • Ordered categories
    • freshman, sophomore, junior, senior
    • Nominal and ordinal are similar
    • the distances between each point are not neccessarily equal
  9. Levels of measurement have a natural order, from strong to weak
    • Strong: Ratio; Interval (quantitative)
    • Weak: Ordinal;Nominal (qualitative/catergorical)
  10. Permissible operations
    all levels of measurement have certain mathematical operations that are allowed, and others that are not allowed
  11. Permissible operations: Ratio variables
    Multiplication and division (ratio) operations ar permitted because there is a true 0 point
  12. Permissble operations: Interval variables
    addition and subtraction ar allowed, but not division and multiplication
  13. Permissible operations: ordinal variables
    comparison of less and more are allowed, but not the other mathematical operations
  14. Permissible operations: nominal variables
    comparison of same or different are allowed, but not less or more, or any other mathematical operations
  15. Demotion
    • Involves throwing away information
    • ex Rank height
  16. Promotion
    • Involves adding information that you dont have
    • ex. GPA calculator
  17. Norm Referencing
    • each score is compared to the average of a reference group
    • grading on a curve is an application
    • ex IQ testsĀ 
    • SAT, GRE
    • Personality inventories
  18. Criterion referencing
    • each score is compared to an absolute standard
    • these are generally used when absolute performance levels are set
    • Ex. DMV written exams
    • State K-12 testing (No Child Left Behind)
    • PACT
  19. Percentile
    it depends on how many ppl took the test to determine how good the rank is
  20. Standard scores
    • obtained from raw scores by converting the distribution to one with a new mean and standard deviation
    • Z scores are the most common
  21. Z scores
    once z score is obtained we can convert this to a percentile by looking up the z scored on a table of the normal distibution
  22. grade equivalents
    • publishers cheat
    • based on z scores for the same school grade, not different school grades
  23. SEM
    • standard error of measurement
    • test scores vary randomly
    • ppl test scores may vary from their true scores
    • measures how far a test score is likely to be from the true score (it is a kind of standard deviation of measurment)
  24. True score
    a real score that would be obtained by giving the test over and over again and averaging the results